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Front Load Automatic Washers

 


The front load automatic washer has been around for decades. The first ones that I
ever serviced were a General Electric front load automatic washer and dryer
combination and a Westinghouse front load automatic washer back in the late 1970s.
Today the front load automatic washer is a complex electromechanical machine, and Figure
19-1 is used as an example only. Todayfs service technician will need to know how to
service electronic controls, thermistors, sensors, inverter boards, and variable speed
motors. You must be able to read wiring diagrams, technical data sheets, and service
manuals. I also recommend that you attend a training class on front load automatic
washers.
Principles of Operation
The front load automatic washer presents a number of new features and operating
characteristics quite different from the top load automatic washers (see the use and care
guide for the model you are working on). In addition to the front-loading operation, the
washer contains a number of unique operating features designed to increase clothes
cleaning ability while offering very high water and energy conservation.
The clothes are placed evenly into the washer basket, making sure that the washer is not
overloaded and that the proper cycle is selected. The user then adds detergent, bleach, or
fabric softener to the dispenser drawer located in the front top section of the washer (read
the use and care instructions for the model being serviced). The user will select a cycle and
all options for the intended wash load, and then activates the washer through the cycle
selector knob and starts the washer. On all front load models, the washer door will lock
until the wash cycle ends or the user interrupts the cycle to add clothing to the wash cycle.
All wash and rinse water enters the wash basket through the water fill hoses, the water
inlet valves, and the water inlet hose through the dispenser system. The amount of water
that enters the wash basket is controlled by a preprogrammed fill through the electronic
control board. Some models have a flowmeter sensor that monitors the amount of water
entering the wash basket. As the flowmeter tracks the amount of water (about 10.5 gallons
maximum), and if the electronic control board has not detected the water level control
switch (pressure switch) indicating a full wash basket, an error code will appear and the
water will shut off. On some models, the front load washer will maintain the proper fill
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FIGURE 19-1 Parts identiication and location in a front-loading automatic washer.
Detergent
dispenser
Display board and
touch pad panel
Water fill valve and
flowmeter valve
Motor control
board
The drive motor and
belt are serviceable
in the rear of washer.
Pedestal
Drain pump
assembly
Basket/drum
Controls and
cycle selection
Electronic
control board
Pressure switch
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level using an adaptive fill preprogrammed into the electronic control board. A heating
element is used on some models to increase the water temperature on certain wash cycles.
The inner basket will begin to rotate in a direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) at a
predetermined speed that is preprogrammed into the electronic control board. Then the
inner basket will pause for a predetermined amount of time and then begin to turn in the
opposite direction at a predetermined speed. The length of wash tumble time is adaptive to
the soil level programmed into the electronic control board at the start of the cycle.
When the preprogrammed tumble wash is completed, the inner basket comes to a halt
and the drain pump motor will begin to drain the wash water from the front load washer. The
spin cycle is designed to remove as much water and detergent as possible without harming
the clothes. Spin speeds can be as low as 90 rpm to as high as 1000 rpm. The spin speeds are
controlled by the cycle selection the user chooses at the beginning of the cycle. The spin speed
and/or duration of final spin vary from cycle to cycle. Increasing the spin speed will extract
more water and detergent, decreasing drying time and conserving energy. Decreasing the spin
speed will reduce wrinkling. On some models, if you use no spin at the end of the cycle, the
clothes will be very wet and they will have to be line dried. Some models use brief sprays of
water to remove any soap or dirt residue remaining on the clothes in the spin cycle.
When the wash cycle ends, the door will unlock and the clothes can be removed from the
washer and placed into the dryer for drying.
Functions and Cycles
The removal of soil from clothing and fabrics is accomplished by a combination of
mechanical and chemical processes:
. Mechanical process Soil is removed by tumbling the clothes and by forcing the
detergent through the clothing.
. Chemical process The HE (high-efficiency) detergent used will dissolve and loosen
the soil in the clothing. Also the tumbling action of a front load washer is gentler on
the clothing, allowing more air to be added to the water as the clothes are plunged
into and lifted out of the water. As the front load washer operates through its cycles,
it is aided by hot, soft water, which increases the chemical processes of the detergent
being used.
Front load washing machines perform four basic functions, which are modified and put
together in different ways to create the various cycles. The four functions are:
. Fill
. Tumble wash (clockwise or counterclockwise)
. Drain
. Spin
Safety First
Any person who cannot use basic tools or follow written instructions should not attempt to
install, maintain, or repair any automatic front load washers. Any improper installation,
preventive maintenance, or repairs could create a risk of personal injury or property damage.
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If you do not fully understand the installation, preventive maintenance, or repair
procedures in this chapter, or if you doubt your ability to complete the task on the front
load automatic washer, please call your service manager.
The following precautions should also be followed:
. Never bypass or disconnect any part or device (originally designed into the washer)
as a temporary repair.
. Always reconnect all ground wires, and be sure that they are secure.
. Be careful of moving parts and sharp edges.
Before continuing, take a moment to refresh your memory of the safety procedures in
Chapter 2.
Automatic Front Load Washers in General
Much of the troubleshooting information in this chapter covers automatic front load washers
in general, rather than specific models, in order to present a broad overview of service
techniques. The pictures and illustrations that are used in this chapter are for demonstration
purposes only, to clarify the description of how to service front load washing machines and
in no way reflect a particular brandfs reliability.
Location and Installation of Automatic Front Load Washers
The following are some general principles that should be followed when performing the
installation of a washing machine:
. Locate the washing machine where there is easy access to existing drain, water, and
electrical lines.
. Be sure you observe all local codes and ordinances for the electrical and plumbing
connections.
. The washing machine should be installed and leveled on a firm floor to minimize
vibration and possible washer gwalkh during operation.
. Do not install the washing machine in an area where the temperature might be
below freezing.
. To reduce the risk of a fire, never install a washing machine on any type of carpet.
. Follow the manufacturerfs recommendations on washer installation clearances.
. Always follow the installation instructions that are provided with every new front
load washing machine model purchased.
Common Installation Problems
Front load automatic washer installations are not complicated. However, as a service
technician, you will come across a front load washer that has not been installed according to
the manufacturerfs installation instructions. The following sections describe some of the
problems that you might run into and how to solve them.
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When you arrive at a service call and the consumer tells you that the washer is full of
water and it will not drain out, check for the following:
. The drain hose is kinked.
. The drain hose has a blockage.
. The drainpipe might be too small, not allowing for proper venting. The drainpipe
must be a minimum of 1. inches in diameter.
. The drainpipe and the drain hose were installed over six feet above the floor.
If the consumer tells you the washer will not fill up with water or it enters slowly, check
the following:
. The water faucets were never turned on or they were turned on only a little bit.
. There is a blockage in the water inlet screen. The consumer did not flush out the
water lines before installing the hoses on the washer.
. The water might be used somewhere else in the home. Check the water pressure
(see use and care guide or installation instructions).
. When the washer is filling with water, the water is siphoning out through the drain
line. The drainpipe is too low or the wrong size diameter. You might have to install
a siphon break kit at the end of the drain hose.
When you arrive at the service call, you notice water on the floor. Check the following:
. The water hoses to the water inlet valve.
. The water faucet might be leaking.
. The drain hose is not connected properly to the washer.
. The drain hose comes out of the drainpipe.
. The drainpipe might have a blockage.
. The household drain cannot handle the capacity of the discharge water.
When the washer goes into the spin cycle, it will begin to vibrate and walk across the
floor. Check the following:
. The feet or leveling legs on the washer are not set properly, causing the washer to
teeter-totter.
. Is the washer level?
. Is the floor level?
. Check and see if the packing and shipping straps have been removed. Read the
installation instructions on removing the packing straps.
Water Supply
The water supply for an automatic front load washer should have a hot and cold faucet
located within four to six feet of the washer. The faucets should be a 3/4-inch threaded type
to accept the fill hose connection.
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The water pressure must be between 20 and 120 pounds per square inch for the washer to
operate properly. The water coming out of the fill hoses should be equal in both pressure and
in the volume of water to prevent unacceptable water temperature changes when entering
and filling the washer.
The hot water supply to the washer should be between 130 and 150 degrees Fahrenheit. If
the hot water temperature is below 70 degrees Fahrenheit, the clothes being washed will not
clean properly and the detergent will not dissolve properly. You can check the temperature of
the hot water by opening the hot water faucet near the washer. Let the water run until it is as
hot as possible, and then insert a thermometer into the stream of water. If the thermometer
reading is below 130 degrees Fahrenheit, you will have to raise the water heater thermostat
setting. On some front-loading models, the manufacturer has incorporated an electric heater
in the washer to heat the water to 153 degrees Fahrenheit for select wash cycles.
The cold water temperature should be between 70 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. When
the washer is in its rinse stage, the cold water will prevent wrinkles from setting into the
fabrics. Some fabric manufacturers require that their fabrics be washed in cold water, both
to prevent shrinkage and to eliminate the possibility of destroying the fabric. When the user
selects the warm fill, the temperature of the water should be 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
It is recommended that the consumer read the use and care manual before performing
a wash. Most use and care manuals have a water temperature guide to assist the user in the
proper selection of the water temperature.
Drain Requirements
The drain to which the washerfs drain hose is connected must be able to accept at least a
17- to 20-gallon-per-minute flow in order to remove the water from the tub. The standpipe
should be at least 30 inches in height and no higher than 96 inches. The internal diameter
of the drainpipe should be a minimum of 1. inches in order to provide an air gap around
the drain hose and thus to prevent the suction from siphoning the water out of the tub
during the wash cycle. To select the proper drain hose installation method for the front
load washer model, see the installation instructions that came with the washer.
Electrical Requirements
The front load automatic washer must be plugged into a 120 volt, 60 Hz, alternating current
(AC) electrical power supply only. The washer must be connected to a separate 15 or 20 amp
time-delay fuse or circuit breaker, and the three-prong receptacle must have the correct
polarity (see Chapter 6). The washer must be grounded according to the manufacturerfs
installation instructions. Two-prong receptacles must not be used. Do not remove the ground
prong or plug the washer cord into an adapter. Have an electrician change out the receptacle
and replace it with a three-prong receptacle. Also, never use an extension cord on an
appliance; this could result in fire, electrical shock, or death.
HE (High-Efficiency) Detergent
The only type of detergent that can be used with a front load automatic washer is HE
(high-efficiency) detergent. Soap manufacturers are producing HE detergent for all of the
front load automatic washers manufactured today. These detergents are formulated for use
in low water volume washers. By using a non-HE detergent, the front load washers wash
system, along with less water usage, will create oversudsing, washer errors, longer cycle
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times, and reduced rinsing performance. In addition, it may cause component failures and
mold and mildew problems within the wash system. For more information on detergents
go to www.cleaninginstitute.org.
Step-by-Step Troubleshooting by Symptom Diagnosis
Washer Will Not Turn On
1. Is the washer plugged in? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and
132 volts during a load on the circuit.
2. Check for a blown fuse or a tripped circuit breaker.
3. Check for voltage at the main electronic control board. On some models you will
hear a click when the washer is plugged in.
4. Check for continuity in the service cord and the line filter.
5. Check connection and wiring on the electronic control board.
6. Plug in the washer and try starting it again. If necessary, reprogram to another cycle
and try to restart.
7. Check touchpad/LED assembly. Try another cycle.
8. If washer has not been turned off, check for an overheated motor. After a cooldown
period of 30 minutes, the motor should restart.
Washer Will Not Start the Cycle
1. Open and close the washer door. Between consecutive wash cycles the door has
been opened.
2. Place washer in the service mode, and run the diagnostic test to check the door lock
assembly for proper operation.
3. If the door is locked, use the diagnostic test to drain the washer.
4. Disconnect the power to the washer.
5. Check the wiring harness and the plug connectors.
6. Reconnect the power to the washer.
7. Check touchpad/LED assembly. Try another cycle.
The Washer Will Not Shut Off
1. Check for an error/fault code on the display console.
2. Cancel the wash cycle.
3. Check touchpad/LED assembly. Try another cycle.
4. Disconnect the power to the washer.
5. Check the drain pump, drain hose, and the drain pump filter for obstructions.
6. Reconnect the power to the washer.
7. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operation.
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Electronic Control Will Not Accept Any Selections
1. Check for an error/fault code on the display console.
2. Check the drain pump, drain hose, and the drain pump filter for obstructions.
3. Check touchpad/LED assembly. Try another cycle.
4. Disconnect the power to the washer.
5. Check the wiring harness and the plug connectors.
6. Reconnect the power to the washer.
7. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operation.
The Washer Will Not Dispense Chemicals
1. Is the washer level? Check washer installation.
2. Check the dispenser drawer for chemicals that might be clogged in the dispenser.
3. Check all water connections to the washer and throughout the washer for
obstructions. Also, check for a clogged water valve inlet screen.
4. Check dispenser motor assembly.
5. Disconnect the power to the washer.
6. Check the wiring harness and the plug connectors.
7. Reconnect the power to the washer.
8. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operation.
Washer Will Not Fill or Enters Slowly
1. Check washer installation. Check that both water faucets are open all the way.
Check for low water pressure.
2. Disconnect the power to the washer.
3. Check water inlet valves.
4. Check all water connections to the washer and throughout the washer for
obstructions or kinked hoses. Also, check for a clogged water valve inlet screen.
5. Reconnect the power to the washer.
6. Check the pressure switch for proper operation.
7. Check the drain pump motor.
8. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operation.
9. Check under the problem gThe Washer Will Not Dispense Chemicals.h
The Washer Overfills
1. Check washer installation.
2. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify drain pump system.
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3. Check the pressure switch for proper operation.
4. Check the pressure switch hose from the outer drum to the switch.
5. Check the flowmeter for proper operation.
6. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operation.
Washer Drum Will Not Rotate
1. Check drive belt.
2. Check the drive motor for proper operation.
3. Disconnect the power to the washer.
4. Check the wiring harness and the plug connectors.
5. Reconnect the power to the washer.
6. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operations for the drive motor.
Washer Drive Motor Overheats
1. Check the drive motor.
2. Disconnect the power to the washer.
3. Check the wiring harness and the plug connectors.
4. Check the drive motor belt.
5. Reconnect the power to the washer.
6. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operations for the drive motor.
7. If washer has not been turned off, check for an overheated motor. After a cooldown
period of 30 minutes, the motor should restart.
Washer Will Not Drain or Drains Slowly
1. Disconnect the power to the washer.
2. Check the wiring harness and the plug connectors.
3. Check the drain pump, drain hose, and the drain pump filter for obstructions.
4. Reconnect the power to the washer.
5. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operations.
6. Check drain hose installation. The maximum standpipe height is 96 inches. See
washer installation instructions.
Washer Will Not Spin
1. Check dispenser drawer. On some models the drawer must be completely closed.
2. Check washer door. It must be closed.
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3. On some models the wash load may be too small. Add more clothes.
4. Disconnect the power to the washer.
5. Check belt.
6. Check drive motor.
7. Reconnect the power to the washer.
8. Check for error/fault code.
9. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operations.
Front Load Washer Vibrates and Walks
1. Check for removal of shipping bolts and packing materials.
2. Check washer installation.
3. Make sure washer is level. Check the leveling feet.
4. Wash load may not be evenly distributed in drum. Stop washer and rearrange
clothing.
Washer Has Incorrect Water Temperature
1. Check that the water inlet hoses are connected properly.
2. Disconnect the power to the washer.
3. Check the water heater element and the wire connections.
4. Check the water temperature sensor.
5. Reconnect the power to the washer.
6. Place washer in service mode, and run diagnostic test to verify electronic control
board operations.
Flashing Display
1. Check for an error/fault code.
High-Pitched Noise
1. When the motor goes into spin, a certain high-pitched whining noise is normal.
Clanking and Rattling Noises
1. Stop the washer and check for foreign objects in the drum.
2. Restart the washer; if noises continue, stop the washer again.
3. Disconnect the power to the washer.
4. Check pump assembly for foreign objects.
5. Reconnect the power to the washer. Run washer.
6. Sometimes belt buckles or metal fasteners are hitting the drum. Check use and care
instructions for proper handling of items.
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Squealing Noises or Burning Rubber Odor
1. Check and see if washer is overloaded.
2. Reduce wash load.
3. Disconnect the power to the washer.
4. Inspect drive motor belt.
5. Reconnect the power to the washer.
6. Test washer operation.
Thumping Sounds While Washer Is Running
1. Heavy wash loads may produce thumping sounds. This is normal.
2. Check washer installation.
3. Stop washer and redistribute wash load.
Water Leaks
1. Check for loose fill hoses.
2. Disconnect the power to the washer.
3. Check the drain pump, drain hose, and the drain pump filter.
4. Check the tub gasket (boot) for holes.
5. Reconnect the power to the washer.
6. Test washer operation and inspect for other water leaks. If still leaking water,
immediately turn off the power and repair washer.
Oversudsing
1. Check for wrong detergent used. Only use HE detergent.
2. Check for too much detergent used.
3. Run washer through several rinse cycles to remove excess suds.
4. Advise customer to use less detergent for future wash loads.
Incorrect Wash and Rinse Water Temperatures
1. Check fill hoses are connected correctly.
2. Check water pressures.
Water Is Entering Tub But Tub Will Not Fill with Water
1. Drain hose was improperly installed. The standpipe must be a minimum of 24 inches
high to prevent siphoning.
2. See installation instructions for proper installation.
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Common Washability Problems
If there are no mechanical problems with the washerfs operation and the complaints are
that the washer does not clean the clothes properly, you have a washability problem. The
next step should be to look at the cause that best describes the problem that the customer is
experiencing with the washer. Then proceed to correct the problem. If necessary, instruct the
user on how to get better results from the automatic front load washer.
Stains on the Clothing
Stains on clothing can be caused by a number of different things. As the servicer, you will
have to determine if it is caused by the washerfs components or an external source. This
type of problem is related to the increasing use of synthetic fabrics and to the poor washing
practices of the user. Many of these stains consist of cooking oil or grease and are not visible
when they first occur during cooking or eating. The oil that is embedded in the clothing acts
like glue, attracting dirt from the wash water. When the wash cycle is completed, the clothes
come out dirty and spotted.
Chemical Safety
There are some safety concerns that should be followed to reduce the risk of fire or serious
injury to people or property:
. When using stain removal products always read and comply with the instructions
listed on the container.
. Keep stain removal products in their original container and out of reach of children.
. Utensils used to assist in removing stains should be washed thoroughly.
. Never combine stain removal products such as chlorine bleach and ammonia. The
fumes from both of these chemicals can make you very sick or kill you.
. Never wash clothing or items that have been soaked in, washed in, or spotted in
gasoline, dry-cleaning solvents, or other flammable or explosive substances. These
substances give off vapors that will ignite and explode causing property damage
and/or personal injury or death.
. Never use flammable solvents or chemicals inside the home. Vapors can explode on
contact with flames or sparks. Be careful and safe.
Stain Removal
The following are some stain-removal rules for clothing in general:
. Stains are easier to remove when they first appear on the clothing. If the stains are
old, they might never come out of the clothing.
. Before attempting to remove any stain, you must know what type of stain, what
kind of fabric, and how old is the stain?
. Use only cold or warm water to remove stains. Hot water will set the stain
permanently into the fabric.
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. When bleach is recommended for the removal of the stain, use a bleach that is safe
for the fabric. When using a chlorine bleach, always dilute it with water to prevent
the bleach from destroying the fibers.
. Always test stain remover products on a hidden corner of the garment to see if the
color remains in the fabric.
. When preparing to remove the stain from the fabric, face the stained area down on a
paper towel or a white cloth. Then apply the stain remover to the back of the stain
so that the stain will be forced off the fabric, instead of through the fabric.
. Some protein stains can be removed with an enzyme presoak or with meat tenderizer.
. When using dry-cleaning solvents, always use them in a well-ventilated room, away
from flames and sources of ignition to prevent personal injury or death.
. Alcoholic beverage stains turn brown the longer they stay on the fabric. As soon as
the stain appears on the fabric, start treating it immediately. Wash or soak the stain
in cold water, and then wash the garment.
. To remove blood stains, rinse or soak the garment in cold water with an enzyme
presoak product. You can use diluted chlorine bleach on white fabrics, if necessary.
For colored fabrics, use a powdered oxygen-type bleach. Then wash the garment.
. To remove chewing gum, use ice on the stain to make the chewing gum hard. Then
scrape most of it off the fabric. Next, use a nonflammable dry-cleaning solvent with
a sponge to remove the excess chewing gum. Wash the garment.
. To remove coffee or chocolate stains, soak the garment in warm or cold water. Next,
make a paste of detergent mixed with hot water, and brush it on the stain. Wash the
garment.
. To remove a milk product stain, use a nonflammable dry-cleaning solvent with a
sponge. Wash the garment.
. To remove antiperspirant and deodorant stains, wash the garment with laundry
detergent in the hottest water that is safe for the fabric. If the stain remains on the
fabric, place the stain face down on a white towel, and treat the stain with a paste of
ammonia and a powdered oxygen-type bleach. Let the paste stay on the stain for
30 minutes, and then wash the garment in the hottest water that is safe for the fabric.
. To remove fruit stains, soak the stain in cool water. Do not use soap.it will set the
stain. Wash the garment. If the stain remains, cover the stain with a paste made of a
powdered oxygen-type bleach, a few drops of hot water, and a few drops of
ammonia. Let the paste stay on the stain for about 15 to 30 minutes. Then wash the
garment.
. To remove iron or rust stains, apply some lemon juice mixed with salt. Then place
the garment in the sun. Alternatively, a commercial rust-removing solution can be
used. Wash the garment.
. To remove the stains caused by dairy products other than milk or baby formula, use
a product containing enzymes to pretreat or soak the stains for 30 minutes or more
and then place in the wash.
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. To remove crayons or candle wax, scrape off excess wax from fabric. Then place the
stain face down between paper towels. Use a warm iron on fabric until the wax is
absorbed into the paper towel. Replace the paper towels frequently. Next, pretreat
the fabric with a prewash stain remover or a nonflammable dry-cleaning fluid.
Hand-wash the fabric to remove the solvent and then place in the washer.
. To remove chocolate or grass stains, pretreat or soak the fabric in warm water using
a product containing enzymes. Next, place fabric in the washer and use a bleach
safe for the fabric.
Yellowing in Fabric
Some causes of yellowing in fabrics are:
. Poor body soil removal
. Clothes washed in water treated with a water softener
. Hard water or minerals in the water, such as iron
. Body oils released into the garment
. The water supply might pick up the color of decaying vegetation
To remove body oils, the user will have to increase the amount of detergent and use
150-degree Fahrenheit wash water. The user must also increase the frequency of using
bleach in the wash.
To remove the yellowing from garments that are washed in water treated with a water
softener, the user will have to decrease the amount of detergent used, approximately to the
point that the decreased amount will not affect the soil removal process. The user must also
increase the frequency of using bleach in the wash.
Hard water and minerals in the water can be treated with a water-conditioning apparatus.
The user might have to drain the water heater and flush the tank. Never use chlorine bleach to
remove hard water stains or iron stains.
To remove body oils from the garment, use a paste made of detergent and water. Let it
stay on the fabric for 15 to 30 minutes. Then wash the garment.
To remove the yellowing caused by decaying vegetation, increase the amount of
detergent, and bleach more often. White fabrics typically respond quite well to bleaching.
Fabric Softener Stains
Fabric softener stains are becoming more prevalent because it is now being recommended
that some fabric softeners be used in the wash cycle, instead of the rinse cycle. These types
of stains show up on synthetics as well as cotton fabrics. They can be removed from the
fabric by pretreating the stain with liquid detergent and following the washing procedures
listed in the use and care manual.
Lint
Lint is cotton fiber that has broken away from the cotton garment. Lint likes to attach itself to
synthetic fabrics. When this happens, the user often thinks that the washer is not performing
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properly. Therefore, to solve the problem of lint on synthetic fabrics, the user must sort the
items before washing the clothes. For example:
. The user must separate cottons from permanent press and knits.
. The user must separate light colors from dark colors.
Another cause of lint on clothes is overwashing. This causes the clothes to wear out
faster. To correct the overwashing problem, use only one minute of wash time per pound
of dry laundry with normal soil. Any more time than this is a waste, and it usually does not
get the laundry cleaner.
If the drain cycle is excessive, this, too, will cause lint to remain on the garments.
Check for improper drain hose connections. For example:
. Drain hose is too long (over 10 feet).
. Drain hose is too high (over 8 feet).
. Drain hose is kinked.
If excessive drain times still exist, check the following:
. Check the drain pump filter, located at the bottom front of the washer.
. Check that the drain pump is operating properly.
. Check for any obstructions in the drain system.
. Check for any obstructions within the water circulatory system of the washer.
Automatic Washer Maintenance
The interior is normally self-cleaning. However, there are times when you might have to
remove objects from the inner basket. Clean the control panel and outer cabinet with a soft
damp cloth. Do not use any abrasive powders or cleaning pads. Clean and inspect the interior
underneath the washer. Read the use and care manuals for the proper maintenance of the
brands of front load washers you service.
Cleaning the Door Seal Gasket (Boot)
Before cleaning the door seal gasket (Figure 19-2), remove all clothing from the washer.
Now, inspect the door seal gasket for any rips or damage. If stains are found on the door
seal gasket use the following procedure to clean the door seal gasket:
1. Take a gallon of warm tap water and mix it with . of a cup of chlorine bleach; mix
it well.
2. Use a cloth with the diluted solution and wipe the door seal gasket.
3. Let the diluted solution stand on the door seal gasket for 5 to 8 minutes.
4. After the time is up, wipe down the door seal gasket area thoroughly with a dry
cloth, leave the door open, and let the interior of the washer air dry.
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SAFET Y NOT E Wear rubber gloves when using bleach for cleaning. Refer to the bleach
manufacturerfs instructions for proper handling and use.
Cleaning the Dispenser Drawer
Fabric softener and detergent have a tendency to accumulate and build up in the dispenser
drawer. To clean the dispenser drawer, you will have to remove it from the washer console.
Open the dispenser drawer by first sliding the safety latch release lever to the left, and pull
out the drawer until it stops. (On some models just pull out the drawer.) Next, press down
on the locking tab located in the left rear of the dispenser drawer; now pull it out of the
console (Figure 19-3). Take the dispenser drawer over to the sink and rinse it off using hot
tap water. The fabric softener and detergent will dissolve away from the dispenser. Tell the
customer that if the fabric softener and detergent continue to build up, a more frequent
cleaning will be required. After you have cleaned the dispenser drawer, you will begin to
FIGURE 19-2
Front load washer
door seal gasket
(boot).
Door seal
gasket (boot)
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clean the drawer opening (Figure 19-4). Use a toothbrush to clean the upper and lower
recess in the drawer opening. Reinstall the dispenser drawer and test the dispenser drawer
operation.
Maintain Washer Freshness
To maintain the freshness of the washer always use HE detergent and at the end of the wash
cycle, leave the washer door open slightly. On some models the washer manufacturer has
added a special cycle in the washerfs programming to raise the water level, along with chlorine
bleach added to begin the process of thoroughly cleaning the interior of the washer. To access
this special cycle you must read the use and care manual before beginning the cleaning process.
On other models, you can add 1/3 of a cup of chlorine bleach to the dispenser drawer and
run a short wash cycle. Do not add detergent during this process. At the end of the cycle
always leave the door open slightly to have better ventilation and drying of the washerfs
FIGURE 19-3
Press down on the
locking tab and pull
out the dispenser
drawer.
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interior. Always read the use and care guide that comes with the washer for the proper
maintenance procedures. If this cleaning procedure does not sufficiently improve the washerfs
freshness, then you will have to evaluate the washer for other causes.
Winterize Washer
If the washer is going to be stored or moved in the winter months, you will have to prepare
the washer in the following way:
1. Add about one quart to one gallon of nontoxic recreational vehicle (RV) antifreeze
to the empty washer drum.
2. Select the drain/spin cycle and press the start button. Allow the washer to drain for
about 1 minute. This procedure will allow the water to drain out of the washer. This
process will not drain out all of the antifreeze.
3. Open the washer door and dry the interior of the drum.
4. Remove the dispenser drawer and pour out any water remaining in the dispenser
compartments and dry thoroughly.
5. Unplug the washer.
FIGURE 19-4
Use a toothbrush to
clean the excess
fabric softener and
detergent from the
recess in the
dispenser drawer.
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6. Turn off the water inlet and remove the hoses and drain them.
7. Store or move the washer in an upright position. Remember the transport bolts have
been removed when the washer was originally installed. If you kept them, reinstall
the bolts to protect the washer from damage.
8. To reinstall the washer always follow the installation and the use and care instructions
provided by the manufacturer. Donft forget to remove the transport bolts.
9. To remove the antifreeze from the washer after storage, run an empty washer through
a complete cycle, add HE detergent, and do not add clothing to the wash cycle.
By winterizing the washer with antifreeze, any liquid remaining in the drain pump and
hoses will not freeze up, causing damage to the washer.
Repair Procedures
Each repair procedure is a complete inspection and repair process for a single washer
component, containing the information you need to test a component that might be faulty
and to replace it, if necessary.
Any person who cannot use basic tools should not attempt to install, maintain, or repair
any front load washer. Any improper installation, preventative maintenance, or repairs will
create a risk of personal injury, as well as property damage. Call the service manager if
installation, preventative maintenance, or the repair procedure is not fully understood.
Washer Timer
The washer timer is an electromechanical component controlled by a synchronous motor in
incremental advances. It controls and sequences the numerous steps and functions involved
in each cycle.
The typical complaints associated with washing machine timer failure are:
. The cycle will not advance.
. The washer wonft run at all.
. The washer will not fill.
. The washer will not pump the water out.
. The washer will not shut off.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its cycles.
Before you change the timer, check the other components controlled by the timer. If the
washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for
the diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service manual
for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the
correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts
during a load on the circuit.
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3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug out from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you
only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or the
circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Remove the top panel to gain access. Begin by removing the screws from the top
panel to gain access to the timer (Figure 19-5). Roll the console toward you. On
some models, the front console can be removed.
5. Test the timer. Remove the timer motor leads from the timer assembly. Test the timer
motor by connecting the ohmmeter probes to the timer motor leads (Figure 19-6). Set
the range on the ohmmeter to R ~ 100. The meter should indicate between 2000 and
3000 ohms. Next, test the timer switch contacts using the wiring diagram configuration
FIGURE 19-5
Remove the screws
that hold the top
panel. Remove the
top cover to gain
access.
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for the affected cycle. Place the meter probe on each terminal being tested, and turn the
timer knob. If the switch contact is good, your meter will read continuity. If the timer
motor measures suitably, then connect a 120-volt, fused service cord (Figure 18-4) to
the timer motor leads.
NOTE Connect the ground (common) wire test lead to the console ground wire. Be cautious
whenever you are working with gliveh wires. Avoid any shock hazards.
If the motor does not operate, replace the timer. If the timer motor runs but does not
advance the cams, then the timer has internal defects and should be replaced.
6. Remove the timer. To remove the timer, remove the timer mounting screws. On
some front load models, you might have to remove the control panel to gain access
to the timer. Remove the wire lead terminals from the timer. Mark the wires as to
their location on the timer. Some timers have a disconnect block instead of individual
wires, which makes it easier to remove the timer wires.
Turn the timer knob counterclockwise or pull the knob toward you to remove it
from the timer shaft, and slide the indicator dial off the shaft.
7. Install a new timer. To install a new timer, just reverse the disassembly procedure,
and reassemble. Replace the wires on the timer. Reinstall the console panel, and
restore the electricity to the washer. Test the washing machine cycles. Make sure to
take the washer out of the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Electronic Control Board and User Interface Controls
On some models the electronic control board and user interface controls replace the
electromechanical timer and rotary selection switches.
Timer motor Timer cover
FIGURE 19-6
Checking the washer
timer motor.
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The typical complaints associated with the electronic control board or the user interface
controls are:
. The washer wonft run or power up.
. Unable to program the washer.
. The display board will not display anything.
. One or more keypads will not accept commands.
. Unusual display readouts and/or error codes.
To prevent electrostatic discharge (ESD) from damaging expensive electronic components,
follow the steps in Chapters 6 and 11.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. Turn off the
electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before turning it back on. If a
fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up, locate the
technical data sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of the washer for
diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service manual
for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service
manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for
testing the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is there electricity to the washer? The voltage at the receptacle is
between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load on the circuit. Do you have the
correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug out of the wall receptacle. Or disconnect the
electricity at the fuse panel or circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Remove the console panel to gain access. Begin by removing the screws from the
washer top to gain access to the electronic control board. Next remove the top
(Figure 19-7). Now remove the console panel screws to gain access to the user
interface controls (Figure 19-8).
5. Test the electronic control board and user interface controls. If you are able to run
the washer diagnostic test mode, check the different functions of the washer. Use the
technical data sheet for the model you are servicing to locate the test points from the
wiring schematic. Check all wiring connections and wiring. Using the technical data
sheet, you can test the electronic control board or user interface controls and input
and output voltages. On some models, fuses are soldered to the printed circuit board
(PCB). These fuses must be tested first before condemning the component.
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6. Remove the electronic control board and user interface controls. To remove the
defective component, remove the screws that secure the board to the control panel
or washer frame. On some models you may have to lift a tab and turn the control to
remove it. Disconnect the connectors from the electronic control board or user
interface control (Figure 19-9).
7. Install the new component. To install a new electronic control board or user
interface control, read the parts data sheet that comes with the part for the proper
installation process and just reverse the disassembly procedure and reassemble.
Reinstall the console panel, and restore the electricity to the washer. Test the washer
operation. Make sure to take the washer out of the service test mode when the
repair is completed.
Door Lock
The door lock is mounted behind the front panel of the washer. It contains the door switch
and the solenoid operating mechanism that opens and closes the washer door. A release
ring located at the bottom of the lock mechanism can be pulled down to release the door
lock in case of failure. The door lock on some models will not open until the cycle is
FIGURE 19-7
Removing the top from
the front load washer.
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Control panel
Control knob
User interface
controller
Control panel brace
Channel
Electronic control
board
Screw
Main wiring harness
Screw
Screw
FIGURE 19-8 An exploded view of the control panel parts for a front load automatic washer.
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completed and during a high suds condition. Also, the door lock will not open when the
basket is rotating or heating the water.
The typical complaints associated with the door lock are:
. The door will not lock.
. The door will not unlock.
. The door lock can initiate error codes.
To prevent electrostatic discharge (ESD) from damaging expensive electronic components,
follow the steps in Chapters 6 and 11.
FIGURE 19-9
When removing the
wire connectors from
the board, label them
so you will remember
where to plug them in.
In todayfs age, you
could use your
smartphone to take a
picture before you
start removing wires.
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To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. On electronic
models, turn off the electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before
turning it back on. If a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not
power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of
the washer for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual
service manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer.
The service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test
mode for testing the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is there electricity to the washer? The voltage at the receptacle is
between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load on the circuit. Do you have the
correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug out of the wall receptacle. Or disconnect the
electricity at the fuse panel or circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Test the door lock switches. Disconnect the wire connectors from the door lock
assembly. Set your multimeter on the ohms scale to R ~ 1. Next touch the meter test
leads to the two terminals for each switch. You will need the wiring diagram for this
test. The wiring diagram will identify the switch number contacts and the electronic
control board connector contacts. The switch contacts will read 0 when closed.
When the switch is open you will read infinite (open circuit). Next, test the door
lock and unlock solenoids. Touch the meter test leads to the indicated connector
terminals. Each solenoid should read about 60.
5. Remove the door lock to gain access. First, remove the bottom panel and reach in
and locate the ring at the bottom of the lock mechanism and pull it down to release
the door lock. This will open the washer door. The door lock assembly is attached
to the front panel by three Phillips-head screws (Figure 19-10). Next, peel back the
door seal gasket and locate the wire loop and spring. Using long-nose pliers,
remove the wire loop and spring from around the gasket (Figure 19-11a). Now, pull
the door seal gasket away from the front panel (Figure 19-11b). Remove the three
Phillips-head screws that secure the door lock assembly to the front panel. Reach in
behind the front panel and pull out the door lock assembly and remove the three
wire harnesses (Figures 19-12 and 19-13). Once this lock assembly has failed it
should be replaced with a duplicate of the original.
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Bellows
Spring
loop
FIGURE 19-11a
Using a long-nose
pliers to remove the
wire loop and spring
from the door seal
gasket.
FIGURE 19-10 The door lock is held in place with three Phillips-head screws.
Bottom panel
Phillips-head screw
Phillips-head screw
Phillips-head screw
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6. Install a new door lock. To install a new door lock, just reverse the disassembly
procedure, and reassemble. Replace the wires on the door lock assembly. Reinstall
the door seal gasket, and restore the electricity to the washer. Inspect and test the
washing machine for water leaks and proper operation. Make sure to take the
washer out of the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Line Filter
The line filter is located on the interior of the rear panel next to the water valve. The
purpose of a line filter in a front load washer is to smooth out any electrical fluctuations in
the electrical supply voltage to the washer. The line filter also protects the electronic
components and provides for a more reliable operation of the washer cycles.
To prevent electrostatic discharge (ESD) from damaging expensive electronic
components, follow the steps in Chapters 6 and 11.
FIGURE 19-11b
Peel back the gasket
to gain access to the
door lock located on
the right side of the
front panel.
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The typical complaints associated with the line filter are:
. The washer has error codes.
. Electronic control board malfunctions.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. Turn off the
electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before turning it back on.
If a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up, locate
the technical data sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of the washer for
diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service manual
for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service
manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for
testing the washer functions.
FIGURE 19-12
A view from the inside
of the washer looking
out toward the front
panel. The door lock
assembly is attached
to the front panel.
Wire harness
connector
Wire harness
connector
Wire harness
connector
Release ring
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2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is there electricity to the washer? The voltage at the receptacle is
between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load on the circuit. Do you have the
correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug out of the wall receptacle. Or disconnect the
electricity at the fuse panel or circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Remove the top panel to gain access to the line filter. Begin by removing the
screws from the top panel to gain access to the line filter (Figure 19-7). Locate the
line filter in the rear next to the water valve (Figure 19-14).
FIGURE 19-13
Top view of the door
lock assembly.
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5. Test the line filter. Inspect the line filter body for burn marks caused by heat or a
power surge. Next, set your multimeter on the ohms scale, remove the wires from
the terminals on the line filter, and check the resistance between the black wire
terminals and the white wire terminals. The resistance should read 0 between the
terminals.
6. Remove the line filter. Remove the wires from the terminals on the line filter. Then
remove the screws that secure the line filter to the back panel. Slide the line filter to
the right to remove it from the back panel.
7. Install a new line filter. To install a new line filter, just reverse the disassembly
procedure, and reassemble. Replace the wires on the line filter. Restore the
electricity to the washer. Test the washing machine for proper operation. Next
reinstall the top panel and trim (Figure 19-7). Make sure to take the washer out of
the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Dispenser Assembly
Front load washers have an automatic dispenser distribution system that allows for the
automatic dispensing of detergent, bleach, and fabric softener. The dispenser assembly is
located in the upper left side of the washer (Figure 19-3). A water diverter sprays the correct
FIGURE 19-14
The line ilter is
located in the rear,
near the top of the
washer. If you hold an
AM radio next to the
ilter and hear static
when the washer is
running, the line ilter
is defective.
Water
valve Line
Filter
Counter
weight
Outer
basket
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amount of water into the proper compartment at the correct time, which will dilute the
chemicals before they are dispensed into the wash.
The typical complaints associated with the dispenser assembly are:
. The washer has error codes.
. Detergent will not dispense into wash.
. Bleach will not dispense into wash.
. Fabric softener will not dispense into wash.
To prevent electrostatic discharge (ESD) from damaging expensive electronic components,
follow the steps in Chapters 6 and 11.
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. On electronic
models, turn off the electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before
turning it back on. If a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not
power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of
the washer for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual
service manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer.
The service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test
mode for testing the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is there electricity to the washer? The voltage at the receptacle is
between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load on the circuit. Do you have the
correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug out of the wall receptacle. Or disconnect the
electricity at the fuse panel or circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Gain access to the dispenser assembly. Begin by removing the screws from the top
panel to gain access to the dispenser assembly (Figures 19-3 and 19-7).
5. Test the dispenser assembly. On the dispenser tank (Figure 19-16), the water
diverter movement is controlled by a motor-driven cam. By placing the washer into
the service test mode, you can observe the water diverter movement. The dispenser
motor operates on 120 VAC, 60 Hz. The dispenser motor receives its commands from
the electronic control board. You can plug in the washer and check for 120 VAC at
the dispenser motor terminals when the washer is placed in the service test mode.
Use the wiring diagram to find the correct wire connections to place your multimeter
test leads on. Set your meter on AC voltage. If you read 120 volts on your meter and
the dispenser motor does not advance the water diverter, replace the dispenser motor
and/or dispenser assembly. When the washer is unplugged, the dispenser motor
should read approximately 1500 resistance.
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6. Remove the dispenser assembly. Remove the top and the control panel (Figures 19-4
and 19-15). Lay the control panel forward (Figure 19-9). Be careful not to damage the
wiring harness. Next remove the gasket from the front panel (Figures 19-10 and
19-11a, b). Now remove all hoses from the dispenser (Figure 19-17). Disconnect the
wiring harness and remove any screws holding the dispenser in place along with
removing the dispenser motor from the tank.
7. Install the new dispenser assembly. To install a new dispenser assembly, just reverse
the disassembly procedure, and reassemble. Replace the wires on the dispenser motor.
Restore the electricity to the washer. Test the washing machine for proper operation.
Next reinstall the top panel and trim (Figure 19-7). Make sure to take the washer out of
the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Water Level Control
The water level control (Figure 19-18) is located on the upper-right brace and it starts in the
empty position. As the washer fills with water and the water level rises in the tub, it causes
the air in the tube to increase the air pressure in the air dome. The air pressure is transferred
FIGURE 19-15
Remove the eight
Phillips-head screws
that hold the front
bracket and the
control panel rear
cover.
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4
2 3
Water diverter
Motor driven cam
1
Water diverter arrow position Dispenser distribution function
1 Pre wash
2 Main wash
3 Bleach
4 Fabric softener
FIGURE 19-16
To test the operation
of the dispenser, set
the washer in the
service test mode.
FIGURE 19-17
When testing the
dispenser assembly,
do not remove the
wire harnesses.
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C h a p t e r 1 9 : F r o n t L o a d A u t o m a t i c W a s h e r s 619
from the air hose to the water level control and against the diaphragm, which actuates three
switches: foam (suds), main, and overflow (Figure 19-19). The electronic control board
monitors four water level conditions: empty, main, foam (suds), and overflow. Most front
load washer models have overflow protection, which will turn on the drain pump motor
and drain the water from the washer if an overfill condition exists, whether the washer is
running or not. On other washer models, the water level control is electronic (Figure 19-20).
Both controls operate similarly. The electronic board is mounted inside the water level
control unit. The electronic board reads the pressure in the diaphragm bellows and converts
it into an electronic signal. This signal is monitored by the electronic control board, which
turns on or off the water valve solenoids.
The typical complaints associated with the water level control (pressure switch) are:
. Tub does not fill to the proper level selected.
. Washer basket will not rotate.
. Washer will not spin.
. Control panel indicates an error/fault code.
FIGURE 19-18
Water level control
(pressure switch)
located under the
top cover.
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FIGURE 19-19
The air pressure
in the air hose
operates three
internal switches,
which monitor the four
water level conditions
listed.
Level
Empty
Foam
Foam
Main
Main
Overlow
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Overlow
Switch position
Foam
Main
Overlow
Water level control
FIGURE 19-20
Electronic water
level control
(sensor). The air
hose is attached to
the sensor and to
the drain boot in the
washer.
Electronic water
level sensor
Bottom of
wash tub
Hose
Air bell
Drain boot
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To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by trying to select different water levels
when operating the washer through its cycles. On electronic models, turn off the
electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before turning it back on. If a
fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up, locate the
technical data sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of the washer for
diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service manual
for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service
manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for
testing the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the
correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts
during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.) Is
there any physical damage to the component? Is the plastic hose connected to the
water level control and air dome? Check to be sure that the water is turned on all
the way.
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only
remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the
circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Remove the top panel to gain access. Begin by removing the top panel to gain
access to the water level control (see Figure 19-7).
5. Test the water level control. Disconnect the air hose from the air dome and the wire
terminal connectors from the water level control (pressure switch). Set the multimeter
to the ohms scale R ~ 1. Locate on the wiring diagram the correct switch terminals to
test. Touch the test leads to the correct switch terminals. Gently blow in the air hose
until you hear the diaphragm activate. The switches will activate also. The meter
should indicate 0 for each measurement while the diaphragm is activated.
WARNING Do not blow too hard into the air hose; you might damage the diaphragm in the water
level control.
6. Remove the water level control. To remove the water level control (Figures 19-18
and 19-19), remove the wires and then remove the screws that hold the component
to the washer frame. On some models you may have to twist the component and
remove it. Next, remove the plastic hose.
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7. Reinstall the water level control. To install a water level control (pressure switch),
just reverse the disassembly procedure, and reassemble. Replace the wires on the
water level control. Restore the electricity to the washer. Test the washing machine
for proper operation. Next reinstall the top panel and trim (Figure 19-7). Make sure
to take the washer out of the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Water Valve
The water inlet valve controls the flow of water into the washer, and is solenoid-operated
(Figure 19-21). When it is energized, water in the supply line will pass through the valve
body and into the washer.
The typical complaints associated with water valve failure are:
. The washer will not fill with water.
. The washer overfills and leaks onto the floor.
. When the washer is off, water still enters the tub.
. The washer has error codes.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its cycles.
Listen carefully, and you will hear whether the water is entering the washer. On
electronic models, turn off the electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes
FIGURE 19-21
Front load washer
water valve located
on the rear cabinet.
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C h a p t e r 1 9 : F r o n t L o a d A u t o m a t i c W a s h e r s 623
before turning it back on. If a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer
will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for the
diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service manual for
the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service manual
will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing the
washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the
correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts
during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.) Is the
water turned on? Both water faucets must be turned all the way counterclockwise.
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only
remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the
circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Gain access to the water valve. Turn off the water supply to the washer water
valve. To access the water valve, the top panel must be removed (Figure 19-7).
5. Test the water valve. In order to check the solenoid coils on the water valve,
remove the wire leads (label them) that connect to the coils from the wire harness
(see Figure 19-21). These are slide-on terminal connectors attached to the ends of
the wire. Just pull them off. Set the ohmmeter on R ~ 1000, and attach the probes
to the terminals of one of the solenoid coils. The meter should read between 750
and 1100 ohms. Repeat this test for the second solenoid coil.
To test the fill rate of the water valve, the top panel does not have to be reinstalled.
The washer can be placed into the service mode and the water valve activated.
Another way to test the water valve is to attach the 120-volt fused service cord
(Figure 18-4).including the ground wire test lead to the cabinet ground.to the
water valve solenoid coil. Then energize the solenoid coil to allow water to enter
the tub and to check the flow rate of the water valve. The water valve flow rate is
2.1 gallons per minute. This step is repeated for each solenoid coil. If, when you
energize the water valve, no water enters the washer tub, replace the water valve.
If the water valve checks correctly, check the timer or the electronic control board
and the wiring harness.
6. Remove the water valve. Remove the wires from both solenoid coils, and disconnect
the outlet hose. Next, remove the water inlet hoses from the water valve. Remove
the screws that secure the water valve to the washer. On some models there is only
one screw that holds the water valve in place, and then you must slide the water
valve horizontally to the right to remove it.
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7. Install a new water valve. To install the new water valve, just reverse the
disassembly procedure, and reassemble. Reconnect the wire leads to the solenoid
coils. After the installation of the new valve, turn on the water supply and check for
water leaks. If none are found, reinstall the top panel and trim (Figure 19-7) and
restore the electricity to the washer. Test the washing machine for proper operation.
Make sure to take the washer out of the service test mode when the repair is
completed.
Drive Belt
The drive belt is a six- or seven-rib flat Poly-V design belt. It is used to transmit power from
the motor pulley to the tub. The belt is constructed of a material that stretches, which makes
belt tension adjustments unnecessary. It also makes it easier to remove and reinstall a belt.
The typical complaints associated with belt failure are:
. Washer basket will not rotate.
. Washer basket will not spin.
. Washer motor spins freely.
. There is a smell of something burning.
. The washer has error codes.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer in the spin
cycle. Listen carefully, and you will hear and see if the inner basket is turning or if
the circuit breaker trips. On electronic models, turn off the electricity to the
appliance and wait for two minutes before turning it back on. If a fault code
appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data
sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of the washer for diagnostics
information. On some models you will need the actual service manual for the
model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service manual
will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing
the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the
correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts
during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug out from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you
only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at
the circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
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C h a p t e r 1 9 : F r o n t L o a d A u t o m a t i c W a s h e r s 625
4. Gain access to the belt. Pull the washer away from the wall. You must gain access
to the belt by removing the back panel. The back panel is usually held on with two
to four screws. Remove the screws, and remove the panel (Figure 19-22).
5. Replace the drive belt. To replace the drive belt on this type of washer, you must
remove the belt. Pull out on the belt and turn the basket drive pulley until the belt
comes off the pulley. To reinstall the belt, just reverse the disassembly procedure,
and reassemble (Figure 19-23). The drive belt tension on this type of washer does
not need adjusting. Also, remember to place the rib side of the belt facing into the
pulleys.
6. Test the washer. You are now ready to test the washer. Begin the wash cycle with a
full load of laundry in the basket. Check the wash and the spin cycles. If these check
out okay, reinstall the outer panel. Make sure to take the washer out of the service
test mode when the repair is completed.
FIGURE 19-22
Remove the screws
that secure the back
panel to the rear of
the washer.
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Drain Pump Motor
The drain pump motor consists of a 120 volt 60 Hz motor, impeller, and impeller housing.
It also contains a filter strainer that prevents objects from entering the impeller and the drain
outlet hose (Figure 19-24 and Figure 19-25). The drain pump motor can drain between 8 and
17 gallons per minute with a standpipe height between 2 and 8 feet. The drain pump motor
will operate in the spin cycle and provides overflow protection when signaled from the
water level control (pressure switch) and the electronic control board. The washer has to be
plugged in for the overflow protection to work.
The typical complaints associated with the water pump are:
. Washer will not drain the water out.
. It smells like something is burning.
. The water in the washer will not recirculate.
. The washer has an error code.
FIGURE 19-23 A properly installed drive belt.
Basket drive
pulley
Drive motor
and belt
Outer tub
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C h a p t e r 1 9 : F r o n t L o a d A u t o m a t i c W a s h e r s 627
FIGURE 19-24
The ilter strainer is
located in the front
of the washer at the
bottom behind the
lower panel.
Drain cleanout and
ilter strainer
FIGURE 19-25
A top view of the
drain pump motor
and ilter strainer. The
drain pump motor is
accessible through
the lower panel in the
front of the washer.
Tub outlet
Hose connection
Drain Pump
motor
Pump
wires
Filter
strainer
Drain
hose
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To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. On electronic
models, turn off the electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before
turning it back on. If a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not
power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of
the washer for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual
service manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer.
The service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test
mode for testing the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the
correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts
during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity
to the washer. This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be
sure that you only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse
panel or at the circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Access and remove the drain pump motor. In order to gain access to the drain
pump motor assembly in this type of washer, remove the lower panel (Figure 19-26).
Place a flat pan under the drain cleanout cap (Figure 19-24). About one quart of
water will drain out when you remove the drain cleanout cap. Next, turn the drain
cleanout cap counterclockwise about two to three turns and pull toward you. The
water will drain in the flat pan. Check for debris or foreign objects in the filter strainer.
If you found debris in the filter strainer, clean it out and retest the drain pump motor.
It could have been blocked only.
5. Test the drain pump motor. To test the drain pump motor, remove the wire connector
to the pump motor. Next, set your multimeter on the ohms scale R ~ 1. Place the meter
test leads on the motor terminals. You should read between 10 and 13 on the meter.
Now inspect the impeller inside the pump. If there is any debris, remove it. Make sure
that the impeller is not damaged.
6. Remove the drain pump motor. With the pump wires disconnected and the water
drained from the pump, remove the tub outlet hose and drain hose from the pump
(Figure 19-25). Next, remove the screws that secure the drain pump motor to the
washer. You may have to move the drain pump motor rearward to clear the pins
and grommets in the front frame. Remove the drain pump motor from the washer
in the opening in the front frame.
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7. Install the drain pump motor. To install the drain pump motor, just reverse the
disassembly procedure, and reassemble. Reconnect the wire leads to the motor.
Reconnect the hoses to the pump. Restore the electricity to the washer. Check for
water leaks. Test the washing machine for proper operation. Make sure to take the
washer out of the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Heater Assembly
The heater assembly is located above the drain pump motor attached to the bottom of the
outer tub (Figure 19-27). The heater assembly consists of a 900 to 1100 watt, 120 VAC heater
and water temperature thermistor. The heater will operate on certain cycles, including the
sanitize cycle, when selected by the customer.
The typical complaints associated with the heater assembly are:
. The washer has error codes.
. The laundry at the end of the cycle did not meet the customerfs expectations.
. Water temperature is not correct.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
FIGURE 19-26
This illustration
shows the bottom
access panel has
already been
removed.
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1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its
cycles. On electronic models, turn off the electricity to the appliance and wait for
two minutes before turning it back on. If a fault code appears, look up the code. If
the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control
panel or in the rear of the washer for diagnostics information. On some models you
will need the actual service manual for the model you are working on to properly
diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in properly placing the
washer in the service test mode for testing the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the correct
voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load
on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.) Is the water turned
on? Both water faucets must be turned all the way counterclockwise. Check the hot
and cold water temperature at the nearest water faucet.
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only
remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the
circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
Heater assembly
Tub outlet
hose
FIGURE 19-27 The heater is held in place and sealed to the tub by compressing a gasket between two
metal brackets to the outer tub with a 10 mm nut.
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WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Gain access to the heater assembly. In order to gain access to the heater assembly
in this type of washer, remove the lower panel (Figure 19-26). Look underneath at
the bottom of the tub to the right; you will see the heater assembly (Figure 19-27).
5. Test the heater assembly. To test the heater, remove the wires from the heating
element. Set your multimeter on ohms R ~ 1 and place the test leads on the heater
terminals. The meter should read between 13 and 16 resistance. To test the heater
element with the washer running, turn on the washer in the sanitize cycle with no
load in the drum. Let the washer fill and run for about 5 minutes; then take a
wattage measurement or amperage measurement. The wattage reading should be
between 900 and 1100 watts. The amperage reading should be between 7 and 9
amps. If there is less than 1. inches of water in the basket or if the water level is
below the vanes, the heater will not come on. To measure the height of the water
in the basket when the heater turns on, connect an ammeter or wattmeter to the
heater element wire. Next, place the washer into the service test mode and allow
the water to enter the tub. Once the ammeter or wattmeter indicates a reading (900
to 1100 watts or 7 to 9 amps), stop the washer from filling. Now open the door and
measure the water level. To test the thermistor on the heater assembly, just remove
the wires from the terminals and take a resistance reading. For the correct reading,
see the technical data sheet. See sample charts in Figure 19-28 and Figure 19-29.
Remember that resistance goes down when the temperature increases.
6. Remove the heater assembly. First, place the washer in the drain mode to drain out
the water. Remove all the wires from the heater assembly. Take a 10-mm socket and
loosen the nut on the heater assembly until it is flush with the end of the stud. To
relax the gasket, push in on the nut. Now, grab hold of the heater assembly and pull
toward you to remove it from the tub.
FIGURE 19-28
A component
resistance chart
found on a wiring
diagram. Locate the
correct resistance
chart for the model
you are servicing.
Electrical component
Dispenser valve soleniods
Door lock solenoid
Pump motor
NTC thermistor dispenser
NTC thermistor heater
Water heater
Motor. M1 to M2
Motor. M2 to M3
Motor. M1 to M3
Motor. M4 to M5
Component Resistance Chart
800 } 7%
46.8 } 10%
12 } 7%
3K
4.8K
14 } 10%
5.3 } 7%
5.3 } 7%
5.3 } 7%
118 } 7%
Resistance @ 77F (25C)
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7. Install a heater assembly. To install the heater assembly, just reverse the disassembly
procedure, and reassemble. Reconnect the wire leads to the heater and the thermistor.
When tightening the 10-mm nut, use a torque wrench to secure the nut to 31-in. lbs. of
torque. Undertorquing the nut will cause the tub to leak water, and if it is overtorqued,
the tub will crack and leak water. Restore the electricity to the washer. Check for water
leaks. Test the washing machine for proper operation. Make sure to take the washer
out of the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Inverter (Motor Speed Control Board)
The inverter board, also known as the motor speed control unit, is located in the base of the
washer in the rear (Figure 19-30). It receives its commands from the electronic control board
(Figure 19-9) and controls the speed and direction of the drive motor. For the inverter to
operate the motor correctly, it needs 120 VAC supply voltage, a DC input signal from the
electronic control board, and a good working three-phase motor. To operate a preprogrammed
speed and direction of a motor, you will need to vary the amount, frequency, and polarity of
the voltage and compare the input from the tachometer (sensor) on the drive motor.
The typical complaints associated with the inverter (motor speed control board) are:
. The motor will not run.
. The washer has an error code.
. Fuse is blown or circuit breaker trips.
. The motor runs at the wrong speed.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its
cycles. Turn off the electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before
turning it back on. If a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not
power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel or in the rear of
the washer for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual
service manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer.
The service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test
mode for testing the washer functions.
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the correct
voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load
on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
FIGURE 19-29
A temperature/
resistance chart
found on a technical
data sheet. Locate
the correct chart for
the model you are
servicing.
Temperature
32F (0C)
86F (30C)
104F (40C)
122F (50C)
140F (60C)
158F (70C)
203F (95C)
35.9K
9.7K
6.6K
4.6K
3.2K
2.3K
1K
Results
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C h a p t e r 1 9 : F r o n t L o a d A u t o m a t i c W a s h e r s 633
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only
remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the
circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will not
make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical mishaps.
4. Gain access to the inverter. In order to gain access to the inverter in this type of
washer, remove the lower panel (Figure 19-26). Locate the inverter on the left or
right side.
5. Test the inverter board. Locate the junction box near the inverter board (Figure 19-31).
Remove the junction box cover by pressing in on the tabs. At this point you will need
to enter into the service test mode to check for 120 VAC at the AC input wires. The
service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode
for testing this function. With the motor running in the test mode, test for 120 VAC at
the AC input wires. Next, unplug the washer and test the motor resistance. The
resistance value should be between 3 and 8 between any two of the three windings.
If it is correct, replace the inverter.
FIGURE 19-30
A front view of
the inverter board
located in the base
of the washer.
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6. Remove the inverter board. With the junction box cover off, disconnect the wire
connections (Figure 19-31) in the junction box. Next, remove the wire connector
from the inverter to the motor and remove the ground wire. Remove the screws that
secure the inverter to the base and slide the inverter toward you.
7. Install an inverter board. To install the inverter board, just reverse the disassembly
procedure, and reassemble. Reconnect the wire connectors to the inverter board
assembly. Test the washing machine for proper operation. Make sure to take the
washer out of the service test mode when the repair is completed.
Drive Motor
The drive motor (Figure 19-32) is a three-phase induction type motor operating at variable
speeds and direction, depending on the input voltages and frequencies from the inverter
board. The tachometer (sensor) attached to the motor monitors the motor speed and direction
and sends that information back to the inverter board. The drive motor drives the tub pulley
with a belt.
FIGURE 19-31
A top view showing
the inverter board
and junction box.
Inverter
board
Inverter junction
box
PART VI
C h a p t e r 1 9 : F r o n t L o a d A u t o m a t i c W a s h e r s 635
The typical complaints associated with the drive motor are:
. The motor will not run.
. The washer has an error code.
. Fuse is blown or circuit breaker trips.
To handle these problems, perform the following steps:
1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its
cycles. On electronic models, turn off the electricity to the appliance and wait for
two minutes before turning it back on. If a fault code appears, look up the code.
If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control
panel or in the rear of the washer for diagnostics information. On some models you
will need the actual service manual for the model you are working on to properly
diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in properly placing the
washer in the service test mode for testing the washer functions.
FIGURE 19-32
Typical drive motor
used in a front load
washer.
636 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s
2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with
the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the
correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts
during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)
3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.
This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you
only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at
the circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.
WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.
When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will
not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical
mishaps.
4. Gain access to the drive motor. In order to gain access to the drive motor, you must
gain access to the front lower panel and pull out the washer to gain access to the
rear panel (Figures 19-22 and 19-26).
5. Test the drive motor. There are two methods for testing the drive motor: at the
motor harness connector or at the inverter board. The operation of the drive motor
can also be checked by placing the washer in the service test mode. The service
manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for
testing this function. To test at the drive motor, separate the motor harness connector
and place your multimeter on the ohms scale R ~ 1. Using the wiring diagram, locate
the three windings of the drive motor and the tachometer (sensor) as it relates to
the wiring connector. The resistance value should be between 3 and 8 between any
two of the three windings. Next, test the tachometer (sensor); the meter should
read approximately between 115 and 120. If any of the motor windings vary in
resistance from . to 1 the motor might be bad, depending on the model of washer
serviced. Check the technical data sheet for the exact readings.
6. Remove the drive motor. Remove the rear access panel to gain access to the
drive motor. Remove the drive belt by turning it off the drive pulley (Figure 19-33).
The belt will stretch; this is normal. Next, disconnect the ground wire and the motor
electrical connector (Figure 19-34). Now, remove the four bolts that secure the
drive motor to the outer tub (Figure 19-35). Support the motor when you pull
the drive motor forward to remove it from the washer. On other models, you
may have to remove only one bolt and slide the drive motor rearward to remove
it from its motor mounts.
7. Install the drive motor. To install the drive motor, just reverse the disassembly
procedure, and reassemble. Reconnect the wire connector to the drive motor and
reinstall the ground wire. Test the washing machine for proper operation. Make
sure to take the washer out of the service test mode when the repair is completed.