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Top Load Automatic Washers

The automatic washer is a complex electromechanical machine, and Figure 18-1 is used

as an example only. The actual construction and features of the washer you are

servicing might vary, depending on brand and model. The automatic washer

performs various cycles to clean clothes. There are times when a washer fails to operate

properly. Don’t let its complexity intimidate you. This chapter will provide the basics

needed to diagnose and repair the washing machine. On electronic models, you may need

to have the service manual and the technical data sheet (located inside the control panel)

present to perform the diagnostic test/service modes.

Principles of Operation

The clothes are placed evenly into the washer basket, making sure that the washer is not

overloaded and that the proper cycle is selected. The user then adds detergent to the washer

(see the use and care instructions), and then the user activates the washer through the timer.

The internal switches of the timer distribute the electricity to activate the other components

in the washing machine during a given time period, designated by the internal cam of the

timer.

The water enters the tub through the water fill hoses, the water inlet valve, and water

inlet hose. Hot, warm, or cold water is selected by the user via the water temperature selector

switch, located on the console panel. On some models, the water temperature selection is

controlled by the timer.

The amount of water that fills the tub is controlled by the water level control (pressure

switch). The water level control offers a choice of water levels, depending on the amount of

clothing being washed. As the water level rises in the tub, it forces air through the air dome

and up the plastic tube to the water level control. The pressure that is exerted on the water

level control’s diaphragm will trip the water level switch from empty to full, supplying

electricity to the washer drive motor, and thus operating the transmission.

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The transmission/gearbox is operated by the drive motor, either by belt drive or by

direct drive, depending upon the model. Agitation is accomplished by the agitator, which

is located in the center of the basket and which is driven by the transmission/gearbox. The

agitator turns clockwise and counterclockwise, creating a water motion that moves the

clothes within the basket.

When the washer goes into the drain mode, the agitator will stop agitating, and the

water leaves the bottom of the tub through the water pump, to be pumped into the drain.

The water pump may operate by belt drive, by direct motor drive, or by an electric motor.

A final deep rinse cycle (the tub fills to the selected water level and begins to agitate)

will be introduced to wash off any remaining residue of soap or dirt.

The timer will now select the spin cycle, and the washer will then go into the spin mode.

In the spin mode, the washer spins the clothes, removing most of the water from the clothing

by centrifugal force. Some models use brief sprays of water to remove any residue of soap or

dirt remaining on the clothes in the spin cycle.

FIGURE 18-1

A typical top load

automatic washer.

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Functions and Cycles

The removal of soil from clothing and fabrics is accomplished by a combination of

mechanical and chemical processes:

Mechanical process Soil is removed by agitating and by forcing the detergent

through the clothing.

Chemical process The detergent used will dissolve and loosen the soil in the

clothing. As the washing machine operates through its cycles, it is aided by hot,

soft water, which increases the chemical processes of the detergent being used.

Top load washing machines perform four basic functions, which are modified and put

together in different ways to create the various cycles. The four functions are:

Fill

Agitate

Drain

Spin

Safety First

Any person who cannot use basic tools or follow written instructions should not attempt

to install, maintain, or repair any top load automatic washers. Any improper installation,

preventive maintenance, or repairs could create a risk of personal injury or property

damage.

If you do not fully understand the installation, preventive maintenance, or repair

procedures in this chapter, or if you doubt your ability to complete the task on the top

load automatic washer, please call your service manager.

The following precautions should also be followed:

Never bypass or disconnect any part or device (originally designed into the washer)

as a temporary repair.

Always reconnect all ground wires, and be sure that they are secure.

Be careful of moving parts and sharp edges.

Before continuing, take a moment to refresh your memory of the safety procedures in

Chapter 2.

Automatic Washers in General

Much of the troubleshooting information in this chapter covers top load automatic washers

in general, rather than specific models, in order to present a broad overview of service

techniques. The pictures and illustrations that are used in this chapter are for demonstration

purposes only, to clarify the description of how to service washing machines, and in no way

reflect a particular brand’s reliability.

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Location and Installation of the Top Load Automatic Washer

The following are some general principles that should be followed when performing the

installation of a top load washing machine:

Locate the washing machine where there is easy access to existing drain, water, and

electrical lines.

Be sure you observe all local codes and ordinances for the electrical and plumbing

connections.

The washing machine should be installed and leveled on a firm floor to minimize

vibration during operation.

Do not install the washing machine in an area where the temperature might be

below freezing.

To reduce the risk of a fire, never install a washing machine on any type of carpet.

Always follow the installation instructions that are provided with every new

washing machine model purchased.

Common Installation Problems

Top load automatic washer installations are not complicated. As a service technician, you

will come across a top load washer that has not been installed according to the

manufacturer’s installation instructions. The following sections describe some of the

problems that you might run into and how to solve them.

When you arrive at a service call and the consumer tells you that the washer is full of

water and it will not drain out, check for the following:

The drain hose is kinked.

The drain hose has a blockage.

The drainpipe might be too small, not allowing for proper venting. The drainpipe

must be a minimum of 1½ inches in diameter.

The drainpipe and the drain hose were installed over six feet above the floor.

If the consumer tells you the washer will not fill up with water or very little water is

entering the washer, check the following:

The water faucets were never turned on or they were turned on only a little bit.

There is a blockage in the water inlet screen. The consumer did not flush out the

water lines before installing the hoses on the washer.

When the washer is filling with water, the water is siphoning out through the drain

line. The drainpipe is too low or the wrong size diameter. You might have to install

a siphon break kit at the end of the drain hose.

When you arrive at the service call, you notice water on the floor. Check the following:

The water hoses to the water inlet valve

The water faucet might be leaking

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The drain hose is not connected properly to the washer

The drain hose comes out of the drainpipe

The drainpipe might have a blockage

The household drain cannot handle the capacity of the discharge water

When the washer goes into the spin cycle, it will begin to vibrate and walk across the

floor. Check the following:

The feet or leveling legs on the washer are not set properly, causing the washer to

teeter-totter.

Is the washer level?

Is the floor level?

Check and see if the packing and shipping straps have been removed. Read the

installation instructions on removing the packing straps.

Are the clothes distributed evenly within the tub?

Water Supply

The water supply for an automatic top load washer should have a hot and cold faucet

located within five to seven feet of the washer. The faucets should be a 3/4-inch threaded

type to accept the fill hose connection.

The water pressure must be between 25 and 125 pounds per square inch for the washer

to operate properly. The water coming out of the fill hoses should be equal in both pressure

and in the volume of water to prevent unacceptable water temperature changes when

entering and filling the washer.

The hot water supply to the washer should be between 130 and 150 degrees Fahrenheit. If

the hot water temperature is below 70 degrees Fahrenheit, the clothes being washed will not

clean properly and the detergent will not dissolve properly. You can check the temperature of

the hot water by operating the washer in the fill mode with the water temperature setting on

hot. Let the water run until it is as hot as possible, and then insert a thermometer into the

stream of water. If the thermometer reading is below 130 degrees Fahrenheit, you will have to

raise the water heater thermostat setting. The cold water temperature should be between 70

and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. When the washer is in its rinse stage, the cold water will

prevent wrinkles from setting into the fabrics. Some fabric manufacturers require that their

fabrics be washed in cold water, both to prevent shrinkage and to eliminate the possibility

of destroying the fabric. When the user selects the warm fill, the temperature of the water

should be 100 degrees Fahrenheit.

It is recommended that the consumer read the use and care manual before performing a

wash. Most use and care manuals have a water temperature guide to assist the user in the

proper selection of the water temperature.

Drain Requirements

The drain to which the washer’s drain hose is connected must be able to accept at least a

20- to 30-gallon-per-minute flow in order to remove the water from the tub. The standpipe

should be at least 32 inches high and not exceed 60 inches in height. The internal diameter

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of the drain pipe should be a minimum of 1½ inches in order to provide an air gap around

the drain hose and thus prevent the suction from siphoning the water out of the tub during

the wash cycle.

Detergent

The kind and amount of detergent that is used is an important part of getting clothes clean.

Some top load automatic washer models are designed to use HE (high efficiency) detergent

while other models use regular detergent. Different brands of detergent contain different

amounts of phosphorous, which works to soften the water and to boost the cleaning action.

If the water is hard, you might need to recommend a detergent with a higher phosphorous

content. If the water is soft, the user can use a low-phosphorous detergent.

Some areas restrict the phosphate content to 8 percent or less. This means that the user

will have to increase the amount of detergent used in those areas where the water is hard.

This is done by adding a certain extra amount of detergent manually to the wash cycle.

It is recommended that the consumer read the use and care manual before performing a

wash. Most use and care manuals have a detergent guide to assist the user in the recommended

amount of detergent to use.

Water hardness is measured in grains:

0 to 3 grains: soft water

4 to 9 grains: medium-hard water

10 to 15 grains: hard water

Over 15 grains: very hard water

If you do not know the hardness of the water supply, contact the local water department.

Step-by-Step Troubleshooting by Symptom Diagnosis

In the course of servicing an appliance, don’t overlook the simple things that might be causing

the problem. Step-by-step troubleshooting by symptom diagnosis is based on diagnosing

malfunctions, with their possible causes arranged into categories relating to the operation of

the washer. This section is intended only to serve as a checklist to aid you in diagnosing a

problem. Look at the symptom that best describes the problem that you are experiencing

with the washer, and then proceed to correct the problem.

No Water Entering Washer

1. Is the washer plugged in?

2. Check for proper voltage at the wall receptacle.

3. Check the fuse or reset the circuit breaker.

4. Is the water supply turned on? The fill hoses should feel stiff.

5. Test the water temperature switch contacts for continuity.

6. Check for an open circuit in the timer contacts. On electronic models, run the test

mode.

7. Check for loose wires to the water valve solenoid.

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8. Check the entire wiring harness for loose connections.

9. Test water valve solenoid coils for continuity.

10. Check the water valve inlet strainer screens. Remove the fill hoses to inspect these

filters.

11. Test the water level control switch for continuity.

12. Are the water supply hoses kinked?

13. Check water valves separately for fill.

14. Check for low water pressure at the washer and in the home.

15. Check for frozen pipes and washer fill hoses.

Motor Will Not Run

1. Check for proper voltage at the wall receptacle.

2. Is the washer plugged in? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132

volts during a load on the circuit.

3. Check for a blown fuse or a tripped circuit breaker.

4. Check the line filter.

5. Check for a faulty timer. On electronic models, run the test mode and check the

electronic control board.

6. On electronic models, check the motor drive board.

7. Are there any loose wires to the timer, motor, etc.?

8. Test the motor windings for continuity.

9. Test the thermal overload in the motor for continuity.

10. Test the water level control switch contacts for continuity.

11. Test the motor speed selector switch contacts for continuity.

12. Are there any open wires in the washer circuit?

13. Test the capacitor on the motor using a capacitor tester.

14. Check the centrifugal switch in the motor.

15. Check for continuity of the lid switch contacts. On some models, the lid must be

closed before the motor will start.

16. On some models, check for a blown motor thermal fuse.

17. Check for obstructions in the drain pump.

18. On some models, turn the transmission pulley by hand in the agitation direction. If

it is locked, replace the transmission.

Washer Will Not Agitate

1. Check fuse or circuit breaker. The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and

132 volts during a load on the circuit.

2. On some models you may have to restart the cycle.

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3. Check for a broken or worn belt.

4. Check the motor to the transmission drive coupling (direct-drive models).

5. Test the timer contacts for continuity. On electronic models, run the test mode.

6. Are there any loose wires within the wiring harness?

7. Are there any loose wires to the timer, motor, etc.?

8. Test the continuity of the motor windings.

9. Test the agitator solenoid on the transmission.

10. Check for loose pulleys on the transmission and motor.

11. Check the water level control switch.

12. Test for continuity of the start relay.

13. Test the capacitor on the motor using a capacitor tester

14. Check the centrifugal switch in the motor.

15. Test for continuity of the lid switch contacts.

16. Test for continuity of the speed selector switch.

17. Check the clutch assembly.

18. Check the transmission.

Water Will Not Drain

1. Check for a clogged drain connection.

2. In cold climates, check for frozen drain hose.

3. Inspect the pump for obstructions.

4. Check the drain hose and be sure it is not kinked.

5. Check the belt that goes to the pump.

6. Check for suds lock. If this happens, just add cold water and flush the suds out

of the pump. (Suds lock is caused by too much soap remaining in the tub, pump,

and the connecting hoses. This condition will prevent water from draining

effectively.)

7. On direct drive models, check the pump coupling. The pump and motor must be

removed for a visual inspection of the coupling.

8. Check for air lock in the pump (air trapped inside the pump caused by debris).

9. Check to be sure that the motor is not running in the agitation direction.

10. Check the height of the drain.

11. Does the pump pulley turn freely?

12. On models with an electric drain pump motor, check for a blockage and also check

the pump motor for continuity. Check for voltage at the drain pump motor.

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Washer Will Not Spin

1. Check fuse or circuit breaker. The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and

132 volts during a load on the circuit.

2. Check for a loose or broken belt.

3. Check for loose pulleys.

4. Check the clutch assembly.

5. Check for loose or broken wires in the washer circuit.

6. Test the continuity for a faulty lid switch assembly.

7. Test the continuity for a defective spin solenoid.

8. Check for a broken drive coupling (direct-drive models). The pump and motor

must be removed for a visual inspection of the coupling.

9. Test the continuity of the water level control switch.

10. Test the continuity of the speed selector switch.

11. Test the continuity in the motor windings and the motor overload protector.

12. Test the timer contacts for continuity.

13. Check for clothing jammed between the inner basket and the outer tub.

14. Check all seals and mechanical linkages.

15. Check the transmission.

16. Check to be sure that the motor is running in the spin direction.

Washer Speed Too Slow

1. Check voltage at washer. The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and

132 volts during a load on the circuit.

2. Check the spin selection. Make sure it was not selected.

3. Check the RPM of the tub in the spin cycle.

4. Check the drive belt.

5. Make sure the drain system in the home is functioning correctly.

6. Check for a kinked drain hose.

7. Check the tub seal. Is it binding?

8. Check the brake assembly for proper operation.

9. Look between the tubs for a foreign object binding the tubs.

10. Check the drain pump for a broken impeller.

Noisy Washer and/or Vibration/Walking Washer

1. Check for proper washer installation.

2. Check the leveling legs on the washer for proper adjustment and that they are

locked into position.

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3. Check that the rear legs stabilizer is locked into position.

4. Check to make sure that the pads are on the leveling legs.

5. Check flooring. The washer needs to be installed on a solid foundation.

6. On some models, check the belt.

7. Check the transmission, pulleys, and bearings.

8. Check the center tub seal.

9. Check the outer basket suspension.

10. Check for loose screws in the cabinet, front, and rear panels.

11. Check the base of the washer.

Wrong Water Temperature

1. Run the washer and verify the water temperatures.

2. Check that faucets are turned on fully.

3. Check hot water heater for a minimum of 120 degrees Fahrenheit at the tap.

4. Check hot water heater for capacity and recovery rate. May have to purge water

prior to starting a cycle.

5. Check the inlet hoses. Are they reversed?

6. Check water valve, timer, or the automatic temperature control.

Washer Leaks Water

1. Check water inlet hoses.

2. Check water inlet hose connections.

3. Check drain hose installation.

4. Check tub seal.

5. Check all water hose connections in the washer.

6. Check for a cracked outer tub.

7. Check the water pump.

Common Washability Problems

If there are no mechanical problems with the washer’s operation and the complaints are

that the washer does not clean the clothes properly, you have a washability problem. The

next step should be to look at the cause that best describes the problem that the customer is

experiencing with the washer. Then proceed to correct the problem. If necessary, instruct the

user how to get better results from the automatic washer.

Stains on the Clothing

Stains on clothing can be caused by a number of different things. As the servicer, you will

have to determine if it is caused by the washer’s components or from an external source.

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Many stains are blamed on leaking transmissions. This type of problem is related to the

increasing use of synthetic fabrics and to the poor washing practices of the user. Many of

these stains consist of cooking oil or grease and are not visible when they first occur during

cooking or eating. The oil that is embedded in the clothing acts like glue, attracting dirt

from the wash water. When the wash cycle is completed, the clothes come out dirty and

spotted. If the transmission oil leaked into the wash water, there will be stains on all of the

clothes in a random pattern. The color of transmission oil embedded into the clothing is

usually a brownish-yellow stain. Transmission oil cannot be washed out of the clothes; a

solvent is required to remove the stains.

The following are some stain-removal rules for clothing in general:

Stains are easier to remove when they first appear on the clothing. If the stains are

old, they might never come out of the clothing.

Before attempting to remove any stain, you must know: what type of stain, what

kind of fabric, and how old is the stain?

Use only cold or warm water to remove stains. Hot water will set the stain

permanently into the fabric.

When bleach is recommended for the removal of the stain, use a bleach that is safe

for the fabric. When using a chlorine bleach, always dilute it with water to prevent

the bleach from destroying the fibers.

Always test stain remover products on a hidden corner of the garment to see if the

color remains in the fabric.

When preparing to remove the stain from the fabric, face the stained area down on

a paper towel or a white cloth. Then apply the stain remover to the back of the stain

so that the stain will be forced off the fabric, instead of through the fabric.

Some protein stains can be removed with an enzyme pre-soak or with meat tenderizer.

When using dry-cleaning solvents, always use them in a well-ventilated room, away

from flames and sources of ignition to prevent personal injury.

Alcoholic beverage stains turn brown the longer they stay on the fabric. As soon as

the stain appears on the fabric, start treating the stain immediately. Wash or soak the

stain in cold water, and then wash the garment.

To remove blood stains, rinse or soak the garment in cold water with an enzyme

pre-soak product. You can use diluted chlorine bleach on white fabrics, if necessary.

For colored fabrics, use a powdered oxygen-type bleach. Then wash the garment.

To remove chewing gum, use ice on the stain to make the chewing gum hard. Then

scrape most of it off the fabric. Next, use a nonflammable dry-cleaning solvent with

a sponge to remove the excess chewing gum. Wash the garment.

To remove coffee or chocolate stains, soak the garment in warm or cold water. Next,

make a paste of detergent mixed with hot water, and brush it on the stain. Wash the

garment.

To remove a milk product stain, use a nonflammable dry-cleaning solvent with a

sponge. Wash the garment.

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To remove antiperspirant and deodorant stains, wash the garment with laundry

detergent in the hottest water that is safe for the fabric. If the stain remains on the

fabric, place the stain face down on a white towel, and treat the stain with a paste of

ammonia and a powdered oxygen-type bleach. Let the paste stay on the stain for

30 minutes, and then wash the garment in the hottest water that is safe for the fabric.

To remove fruit stains, soak the stain in cool water. Do not use soap—it will set the

stain. Wash the garment. If the stain remains, cover the stain with a paste made of a

powdered oxygen-type bleach, a few drops of hot water, and a few drops of ammonia.

Let the paste stay on the stain for about 15 to 30 minutes. Then wash the garment.

To remove iron or rust stains, apply some lemon juice mixed with salt. Then place

the garment in the sun. Alternatively, a commercial rust-removing solution can be

used. Wash the garment.

Yellowing in Fabric

Some causes of yellowing in fabrics are:

Poor body soil removal

Clothes washed in water treated with a water softener

Hard water or minerals in the water, such as iron

Body oils released into the garment

The water supply might pick up the color of decaying vegetation

To remove body oils, the user will have to increase the amount of detergent and use

150-degree Fahrenheit wash water. The user must also increase the frequency of using

bleach in the wash.

To remove the yellowing from garments that are washed in water treated with a water

softener, the user will have to decrease the amount of detergent used, approximately to the

point that the decreased amount will not affect the soil removal process. The user must also

increase the frequency of using bleach in the wash.

Hard water and minerals in the water can be treated with a water-conditioning

apparatus. The user might have to drain the water heater and flush the tank. Never use

chlorine bleach to remove hard water stains or iron stains.

To remove body oils from the garment, use a paste made of detergent and water. Let it

stay on the fabric for 15 to 30 minutes. Then wash the garment.

To remove the yellowing caused by decaying vegetation, increase the amount of

detergent, and bleach more often. White fabrics typically respond quite well to bleaching.

Fabric Softener Stains

Fabric softener stains are becoming more prevalent because it is now being recommended

that some fabric softeners be used in the wash cycle, instead of the rinse cycle. These types

of stains show up on synthetics as well as cotton fabrics. They can be removed from the

fabric by pretreating the stain with liquid detergent and following the washing procedures

listed in the use and care manual.

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Lint

Lint is cotton fiber that has broken away from the cotton garment. Lint likes to attach itself to

synthetic fabrics. When this happens, the user often thinks that the washer is not performing

properly. Therefore, to solve the problem of lint on synthetic fabrics, the user must sort the

items before washing the clothes. For example:

The user must separate cottons from permanent press and knits.

The user must separate light colors from dark colors.

Another cause of lint on clothes is overwashing. This causes the clothes to wear out

faster. To correct the overwashing problem, use only one minute of wash time per pound of

dry laundry with normal soil. Any more time than this is a waste, and it usually does not

get the laundry cleaner.

If the drain cycle is excessive, this, too, will cause lint to remain on the garments.

Check for improper drain hose connections. For example:

Drain hose is too long (over 10 feet)

Drain hose is too high (over 5 feet)

Drain hose is kinked

If excessive drain times still exist, check the following:

Check the filter, located under the wash basket on most newer models.

Check to be sure that the pump is operating properly.

Check for any obstructions in the drain system.

Check for any obstructions within the water circulatory system of the washer.

Automatic Washer Maintenance

The interior is normally self-cleaning. However, there are times when you might have to

remove objects from the inner basket. Clean the control panel and outer cabinet with a soft

damp cloth. Do not use any abrasive powders or cleaning pads. Clean and inspect the

interior underneath the washer. Read the use and care manuals for the proper maintenance

of the brands of washers you service.

Cleaning the Interior of the Top Load Automatic Washer

Every one to two months the interior of the washer will need to be cleaned. This periodic

cleaning will remove any dirt, soil, mold, mildew, or bacteria residue that may remain in the

washer as a result of washing the clothes. To clean and freshen the washer interior:

1. Add a cup of chlorine bleach in the bleach dispenser. On some models, pour the

bleach in the wash water as the tub is filling with water.

2. Add ¼ cup of detergent to the tub or detergent dispenser.

3. Run the washer without clothes through a complete cycle using only hot water.

4. Repeat the process if necessary.

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Repair Procedures

Each repair procedure is a complete inspection and repair process for a single washer

component, containing the information you need to test a component that might be faulty

and to replace it, if necessary.

Any person who cannot use basic tools should not attempt to install, maintain, or repair

any top load washer. Any improper installation, preventative maintenance, or repairs will

create a risk of personal injury, as well as property damage. Call the service manager if

installation, preventative maintenance, or the repair procedure is not fully understood.

Washer Timer

The washer timer is an electromechanical component controlled by a synchronous motor in

incremental advances. It controls and sequences the numerous steps and functions involved

in each cycle.

The typical complaints associated with washing machine timer failure are:

The cycle will not advance.

The washer won’t run at all.

The washer will not fill.

The washer will not pump the water out.

The washer will not shut off.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its

cycles. Before you change the timer, check the other components controlled by the

timer. If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the

control panel for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual

service manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug out from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you

only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

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4. Remove the console panel to gain access. Begin by removing the screws from the

console panel to gain access to the timer (Figure 18-2). Roll the console toward you.

On some models, the console will roll upward.

5. Test the timer. Remove the timer motor leads from the timer assembly. Test the timer

motor by connecting the ohmmeter probes to the timer motor leads (Figure 18-3). Set

the range on the ohmmeter to R × 100. The meter should indicate between 2000 and

3000 ohms. Next, test the timer switch contacts using the wiring diagram configuration

for the affected cycle. Place the meter probe on each terminal being tested, and turn the

timer knob. If the switch contact is good, your meter will read continuity. If the timer

motor measures suitably, then connect a 120-volt, fused service cord (Figure 18-4)

to the timer motor leads.

Water temperature switch

Water level switch

Timer

FIGURE 18-2 Remove the screws that hold the control console. Fold over the console to gain access.

Timer motor Timer cover

FIGURE 18-3

Checking the washer

timer motor.

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NOTE Connect the ground (common) wire test lead to the console ground wire. Be cautious

whenever you are working with “live” wires. Avoid any shock hazards.

If the motor does not operate, replace the timer. If the timer motor runs but does not

advance the cams, then the timer has internal defects and should be replaced.

6. Remove the timer. To remove the timer, remove the timer mounting screws

(Figure 18-5). Remove the wire lead terminals from the timer. Mark the wires

as to their location on the timer. Some timers have a disconnect block instead of

individual wires, which makes it easier to remove the timer wires.

Turn the timer knob counterclockwise to remove it from the timer shaft, and slide

the indicator dial off the shaft.

7. Install a new timer. To install a new timer, just reverse the disassembly procedure,

and reassemble. Replace the wires on the timer. Reinstall the console panel, and

restore the electricity to the washer. Test the washing machine cycles.

6-foot cord

Neutral lead (white)

W

B

On/Off G

switch

24-inch cord

with three rubber

insulated, NEC

color-coded

alligator clips

Male plug

with ground

Ground lead - Also grounded

to electrical box (green)

Electrical box

L1 - Hot lead (black)

20-A

resettable fuse

FIGURE 18-4 120-volt fused service test cord.

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Electronic Control Board and User Interface Controls

On some models the electronic control board and user interface controls replace the

electromechanical timer and rotary selection switches.

The typical complaints associated with the electronic control board or the user interface

controls are:

The washer won’t run or power up.

Unable to program the washer.

The display board will not display anything.

One or more key pads will not accept commands.

Unusual display readouts and/or error codes

To prevent electrostatic discharge (ESD) from damaging expensive electronic components,

follow the steps in Chapters 6 and 11.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. Turn off the

electricity to the appliance and wait for two minutes before turning it back on. If a fault

code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up, locate the technical

data sheet behind the control panel for diagnostics information. The service manual

will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing the

washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is there electricity to the washer? The voltage at the receptacle is

between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load on the circuit. Do you have the

correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

Remove timer

screws

Disconnect

harness

plug

Timer

FIGURE 18-5

Removing the timer.

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3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug out of the wall receptacle. Or disconnect the

electricity at the fuse panel or circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position the panel in such a way so that the

wiring will not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without

electrical mishaps.

4. Remove the console panel to gain access. Begin by removing the screws from the

washer console to gain access to the electronic control board. On top-loading

models, the console will roll upward or toward you after removing the console

screws (Figure 18-6).

5. Test the electronic control board and user interface controls. If you are able to

run the washer diagnostic test mode, check the different functions of the washer.

Use the technical data sheet for the model you are servicing to locate the test points

from the wiring schematic. Check all wiring connections and wiring. Using the

technical data sheet, you can test the electronic control board or user interface controls

FIGURE 18-6 A view of the control panel parts for a top load automatic washer.

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and input and output voltages. On some models, fuses are soldered to the printed

circuit board (PCB). These fuses must be tested first before condemning the

component.

6. Remove the electronic control board and user interface controls. To remove the

defective component, remove the screws that secure the board to the control panel

or washer frame. On some models you may have to lift a tab and turn the control to

remove it. Disconnect the connectors from the electronic control board or user

interface control.

7. Install the new component. To install a new electronic control board or user

interface control, read the data sheet that comes with the part for the proper

installation process and just reverse the disassembly procedure and reassemble.

Reinstall the console panel, and restore the electricity to the washer. Make sure that

the washer is not in the service mode. Test the washer operation.

Water Temperature Selector Switch

The water temperature selector switch will allow the user to choose different water

temperatures for the specific wash cycle.

The typical complaints associated with the water temperature selector switch are:

Inability to select a different water temperature.

The consumer inadvertently selected the wrong water temperature.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by trying to select different water

temperatures. On electronic models, if a fault code appears, look up the code. If the

washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel

for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service

manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The

service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test

mode for testing the washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Is there any physical damage to

the component? Are the fill hoses connected to the hot and cold water supply

correctly? Be sure that both the hot and cold water faucets are turned on. The

voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load on the

circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug out of the electrical outlet. Be sure that you

only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at

the circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

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4. Remove the console panel to gain access. Begin by removing the console panel to

gain access to the water temperature selector switch (see Figure 18-3).

5. Test the water temperature selector switch. To test the water temperature selector

switch, remove all wires from the switch. Label the wires.

Remember, you will have to identify the wires according to the wiring diagram in

order to reinstall them onto the water temperature selector switch properly. Take

your ohmmeter and check for continuity on the switch contacts. Press or turn on the

switch that coincides with the terminals that are being checked (Figure 18-7). At this

point, you have to use the wiring diagram to identify the switch contacts.

6. Remove the water temperature selector switch. To remove the water temperature

selector switch, remove the screws that hold the component to the console panel

(Figure 18-8).

7. Reinstall the water temperature selector switch. To reinstall the water temperature

selector switch, just reverse the disassembly procedure, and reassemble.

NOT E You will have to identify the wires according to the wiring diagram in order to reinstall them

onto the water temperature selector switch properly. Reinstall the console panel, and restore the

electricity to the washer. Test the washing machine water temperature cycles.

Water Valve

The water inlet valve controls the flow of water into the washer, and is solenoid-operated

(Figure 18-9). When it is energized, water in the supply line will pass through the valve

body and into the washer.

FIGURE 18-7

Checking the water

temperature switch.

Water temperature

switch

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The typical complaints associated with water valve failure are:

The washer will not fill with water.

The washer overfills and leaks onto the floor.

When the washer is off, water still enters the tub.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its

cycles. Listen carefully, and you will hear whether the water is entering the washer.

On electronic models, if a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not

power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for diagnostics

information. On some models you will need the actual service manual for the model

you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist

you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing the washer

functions.

FIGURE 18-8

Removing the water

temperature switch.

FIGURE 18-9

A typical water valve

used in automatic top

load washers.

Outlet

Metal screen

Cold

Hot

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2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.) Is the

water turned on? Both water faucets must be turned all the way counterclockwise.

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the water valve. Turn off the water supply to the washer water valve.

To access the water valve, the rear panel must be removed. (On some models, to

access the water valve, you will gain access through the control panel.) Disconnect

the fill hoses from the inlet end of the water valve (Figure 18-10). Next, remove the

screws that hold the water valve to the chassis of the washer (Figure 18-11).

5. Test the water valve. In order to check the solenoid coils on the water valve,

remove the wire leads (label them) that connect to the coils from the wire harness

(see Figure 18-11). These are slide-on terminal connectors attached to the ends of the

wire. Just pull them off. Set the ohmmeter on R × 100, and attach the probes to the

terminals of one of the solenoid coils (see Figure 18-12). The meter should read

between 500 and 2000 ohms. Repeat this test for the second solenoid coil.

FIGURE 18-10

Turn off the water

supply, and remove

the ill hoses.

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To test the fill rate of the water valve, just reverse the disassembly procedure, and

reassemble the water valve. The rear panel does not have to be reinstalled for this test.

Attach the 120-volt fused service cord—including the ground wire test lead to the

cabinet ground (see Figure 18-4)—to the water valve solenoid coil (see Figure 18-12).

Then energize the solenoid coil to allow water to enter the tub and to check the flow

rate of the water valve (Table 18-1). This step is repeated for each solenoid coil. If,

when you energize the water valve, no water enters the washer tub, replace the water

valve. If the water valve checks correctly, check the timer and the wiring harness.

6. Remove the water valve. To remove the water valve, follow the instructions in

step 4. Remove the water outlet hose from the water valve.

FIGURE 18-11

Remove the wires

from the solenoid coil.

Water

inlet

valve

FIGURE 18-12

Attaching test leads

to the solenoid coil on

the water valve.

Inlet

valve

Test leads

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7. Install a new water valve. To install the new water valve, just reverse the disassembly

procedure, and reassemble. Reconnect the wire leads to the solenoid coils. After the

installation of the new valve, turn on the water supply and check for water leaks.

If none are found, reinstall the rear panel and restore the electricity to the washer.

Set the timer and the water temperature control settings to operate the washer

through its cycles.

Washer Motor (Older Models)

The typical complaints associated with motor failure are:

Fuse is blown or the circuit breaker trips.

Washer fills up with water but the motor will not run.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its

cycles. Listen carefully, and you will hear if there are any unusual noises or if the

circuit breaker trips. On electronic models, if a fault code appears, look up the code.

If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control

panel for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service

manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The

service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test

mode for testing the washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the correct

voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts during a load

on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

Water Input P.S.I. Gallon per Minute One Side of Valve Gallon per Minute Both Sides of Valve

20 3.7 4.5

30 4.6 5.5

40 5.3 6.2

50 5.6 6.3

60 5.8 6.7

80 6.6 7.0

100 7.0 7.2

120 7.2 7.4

140 7.0 7.3

160 6.8 7.0

TABLE 18-1 Water Fill Rate for a Typical Water Value

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3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the motor. To access the motor, the back panel must be removed

(Figure 18-13). The back panel is held on with screws. Remove the screws and

remove the panel.

5. Disconnect the motor wire leads. Disconnect the motor wire leads from the wiring

harness. Set the ohmmeter on R × 1, and attach the probes to the motor lead wires

(Figure 18-14). Refer to the wiring diagram for the common, start, and run motor

winding leads identification. Test these for continuity, from the common wire lead

to the run winding. Then test for continuity from the common wire lead to the start

winding. Next, test for continuity from the start winding to the run winding. To test

for a grounded winding in the motor, take the ohmmeter probes and test from each

motor wire lead to the motor housing (Figure 18-15). The ohmmeter will indicate

continuity if the windings are grounded. If the motor has no continuity between the

motor windings, replace the motor. If the motor checks out okay, check the timer

and motor relay (if the model that you are repairing has one).

Motor

Transmission

Wigwag Drive belt

FIGURE 18-13 Removing the screws that hold the back panel.

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6. Remove the motor. To remove this type of motor, you must first loosen the two nuts

that hold the motor support bracket (Figure 18-16). Then slide the assembly to

disengage the belt from the pulley. Next, remove the four nuts that hold the motor

to the motor support bracket (Figure 18-17). Remove the motor from the washer.

Remember to remove any remaining wires from the motor and label them. Remove

the pulley from the motor after loosening the set screw.

7. Install the new motor. To install the new motor, just reverse the disassembly

procedure, and reassemble. To adjust the belt, refer to the “drive belt” section of this

chapter (step 5). Restore the electricity to the washer, and test the motor. If the motor

is working, reinstall the back panel.

FIGURE 18-14

Checking the motor

windings for

continuity.

Motor

wires

Housing

FIGURE 18-15

Checking the motor

for ground.

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Washer Motor (Direct-Drive Models)

The typical complaints associated with motor failure are:

Fuse is blown or the circuit breaker trips.

Washer fills up with water but the motor will not run.

Motor

bracket

FIGURE 18-16

Removing the bolts

that hold the motor on

the bracket.

FIGURE 18-17

Removing the motor

and then removing the

pulley.

Start

switch

Motor pulley

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To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its

cycles. Listen carefully, and you will hear if there are any unusual noises or if the

circuit breaker trips. On electronic models, if a fault code appears, look up the code.

If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control

panel for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service

manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The

service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test

mode for testing the washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the motor. To access the motor, you must first remove the cabinet

from the washing machine (Figure 18-18). Remove the two screws that secure the

control console to the cabinet. Tilt the control panel upward. Next, insert a flat-blade

screwdriver in the cabinet retaining clip and push forward to remove it. Remove the

wiring harness connector and ground wire. Finally, remove the cabinet as shown in

Figure 18-18.

5. Test the drive motor. To test the drive motor, disconnect the wire connector from

the motor relay. Refer to the wiring diagram for the motor protector; common; start,

low, and high speed; and motor winding leads identification. Set your ohmmeter on

the R × 1 scale and place your ohmmeter probes on the start winding. The meter should

read around 7 ohms. Next test the high and low speed windings—the resistance

should be between 1 and 3 ohms. Now test the motor overload protector—the reading

should be zero ohms. After testing the motor, spin the motor shaft; it should spin

freely. To test for a grounded winding in the motor, take the ohmmeter probes and

test from each motor wire lead to the motor housing. The ohmmeter will indicate

continuity if the windings are grounded. If the motor has no continuity between the

motor windings, replace the motor. If the motor checks out okay, check the timer

and motor relay.

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Wiring harness

connector

Pressure switch

Tilt the cabinet

toward you and

slide it off the

base, and then

pull it away

from the washer.

Selector switch and timer

Clip

Clip

Cabinet

FIGURE 18-18 Removing the outer cabinet on a direct-drive automatic washer.

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6. Remove the motor. To remove the motor, you must first remove the water pump

and the motor coupler. Before removing the pump, make sure that most of the

water is removed from the tub. Use a pinch-off tool to restrict the water lines at the

pump hoses. Next, proceed to remove the water pump by removing the clamps that

hold the pump in place (Figure 18-19). Remove the three-piece motor coupler

(Figure 18-20). Finally, remove the clamps that secure the motor to the gearcase

(Figure 18-21). Pull the motor toward you to remove it from the washer.

7. Install the new motor. To install the new motor, just reverse the disassembly

procedure, and reassemble. Restore the electricity to the washer, and test the

motor. If the motor is working, reinstall the cabinet.

Front Serviceable Washer

The typical complaints associated with motor, clutch, and belt failure are:

Fuse is blown or the circuit breaker trips.

Washer fills up with water, but the motor will not run.

Motor runs, but washer will not agitate or spin.

Direct-drive washer

water pump

Water pump

clamps

FIGURE 18-19 The direct-drive water pump.

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FIGURE 18-20 Three-piece motor coupler

The three-piece motor

coupler.

Motor hold

down clamps

Motor relay

Drive motor

FIGURE 18-21 The drive motor and relay.

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To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer through its

cycles. Listen carefully, and you will hear if there are any unusual noises or if the

circuit breaker trips. On electronic models, if a fault code appears, look up the code.

If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control

panel for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service

manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The

service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test

mode for testing the washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the motor. To access the motor, you must first remove the front

panel. Locate the two spring clips between the top cover and the front cover

(Figure 18-22). Insert the putty knife and push in to release the spring clips on both

sides. Pull the front panel toward you (Figure 18-23) and remove it from the bottom

tabs. Next, remove the two ¼-inch hex screws from the top panel support brackets

FIGURE 18-22

Locate the spring clips

on the left and right

side, and press in to

release the front

panel.

Align putty knife

to groove in lid

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(left and right sides). Pull the top cover and lid assembly toward you and up enough

to clear the locking tabs in the rear (Figure 18-24). Do not pull too much, because you

have to remove the bleach hose and the lid switch. Do not cut the lid switch wires;

just depress the tab from under the lid switch and remove the lid switch from the top

cover. With the top and front panels removed, you now have access to the motor

located on the bottom in the front of the cabinet (Figure 18-25).

FIGURE 18-23

To remove the front

cover, lift it off the

bottom tabs.

Bottom

tabs

Front cover

FIGURE 18-24

To remove the top and

lid assembly, (1) lift

up about 2 inches and

(2) pull toward you

and remove from

locking tabs.

2

1

Three locking tabs

Lid pulls

up and out

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5. Disconnect the motor wire leads. Disconnect the motor wire leads from the motor.

Set the ohmmeter on R × 1, and attach the probes to the motor lead wires. Refer to

the wiring diagram for the common, start, and run motor winding leads

identification. Test these for continuity, from the common wire lead to the run

winding. Then test for continuity from the common wire lead to the start winding.

Next, test for continuity from the start winding to the run winding. To test for a

grounded winding in the motor, take the ohmmeter probes and test from each

motor wire lead to the motor housing. The ohmmeter will indicate continuity if the

windings are grounded. If the motor has no continuity between the motor

windings, replace the motor.

6. Remove the motor. Loosen the four 3/8-inch mounting nuts that hold the motor in

place (Figure 18-26). Slide the motor inward and remove the belt. Next, remove the

four 3/8-inch nuts. Rotate the transmission to a position that allows you to remove

the motor from the platform.

FIGURE 18-25

With the front panel

removed, you now

have access to the

motor and clutch

assembly, drain pump

motor, and belt.

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7. Remove the clutch. After removing the motor, turn it upright to access the clutch.

Remove the one-time-use spring clip from the clutch with pliers (Figures 18-27

and 18-28).

8. Install the new motor and clutch. To install the new motor and clutch, just reverse

the disassembly procedure, and reassemble (Figure 18-29). Restore the electricity to

the washer, and test the motor and clutch assembly. If the motor is working,

reinstall the cabinet top and front panels.

Capacitor

A capacitor is a device that stores electricity to provide an electrical boost for motor starting.

Most high-torque motors need a capacitor connected in series with the start winding circuit

to produce the desired rotation under a heavy starting load.

Remove the four nuts

FIGURE 18-26

To remove the motor,

remove the four

3/8-inch nuts from

the motor.

FIGURE 18-27

The “one-time-use”

spring clip is

located on the

clutch assembly.

It must be replaced

with a new one.

“One-time-use”

spring clip

Clutch

540 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

FIGURE 18-28

Squeeze and rotate

the pliers to remove

the spring clip.

Rotate to Remove

FIGURE 18-29

Squeeze and rotate

the pliers to reinstall

the new spring clip.

Rotate & Squeeze to Install

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The typical complaints associated with capacitor failure are:

Fuse is blown or the circuit breaker trips.

Washer motor will not run.

Motor has a burning smell.

Motor will try to start and then shuts off.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. Listen

carefully, and you will hear if there are any unusual noises or if the circuit breaker

trips. If you smell something burning, immediately turn off the washer and pull the

plug. On electronic models, if a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer

will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for

diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual service manual

for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service

manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test mode for

testing the washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the capacitor. Some models have the capacitor mounted on the

motor, and some are mounted to the cabinet interior in the rear of the machine.

Access might be achieved through the front or rear panel, depending on which

model you are working on. Do not touch the capacitor until it’s discharged.

WARNING A capacitor will hold a charge indefinitely, even when it is not currently in use. A

charged capacitor is extremely dangerous. Discharge all capacitors immediately any time that

work is being conducted in their vicinity. Redischarge after repowering the equipment if further

work must be done.

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5. Test capacitors. Before testing the capacitor, it must be discharged. Use a screwdriver

with an insulated handle to discharge the capacitor by shorting it across both terminals.

Remove the wire leads, one at a time, with needle-nose pliers. Set the ohmmeter on the

highest scale and then place one probe on one terminal and the other probe on the other

terminal (Figure 18-30). Observe the meter action. While the capacitor is charging, the

ohmmeter will read nearly zero ohms for a short period of time. Then the ohmmeter

reading will slowly begin to return toward infinity. If the ohmmeter reading deflects to

zero and does not return to infinity, the capacitor is shorted and should be replaced.

If the ohmmeter reading remains at infinity and does not dip toward zero, the

capacitor is open and should be replaced.

Another way to test a capacitor is to attach a capacitor tester to it and test the

microfarad reading. It should be within +/– 10 percent of the capacitor rating that

is stamped on the side of the capacitor. By using a capacitor tester, you will be able

to test for a weak capacitor even if it tests out okay with an ohmmeter.

6. Remove the capacitor. Remove the capacitor from its mounting bracket.

7. Install a new capacitor. To install the new capacitor, just reverse the disassembly

procedure, and reassemble. Note: A capacitor is rated by its working voltage (WV or

WVac) and by its storage capacity in microfarads (μF). Always replace a capacitor

with one that has the same voltage rating and the same (or up to 10 percent greater)

microfarad rating.

Drive Belt

The typical complaints associated with belt failure are:

Washer will not agitate.

Washer will not spin.

Washer motor spins freely.

There is a smell of something burning.

FIGURE 18-30

Placing ohmmeter test

leads on the capacitor

terminals.

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To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer in the spin

cycle. Listen carefully, and you will hear and see if the inner basket is turning or if

the circuit breaker trips. On electronic models, if a fault code appears, look up the

code. If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet behind the

control panel for diagnostics information. On some models you will need the actual

service manual for the model you are working on to properly diagnose the washer.

The service manual will assist you in properly placing the washer in the service test

mode for testing the washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug out from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you

only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at

the circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the belt. You must gain access to the belt—whether by removing the

back or the front panel, tilting the washer, or laying it onto its back—depending on

which model washer you are working on. The back panel (or the front panel) is

usually held on with two screws. Remove the screws, and remove the panel.

5. Adjust the belt. Before adjusting the belt, use your finger and press on the belt; it

should only deflect about 1/4 inch. To adjust the belt (see Figure 18-16), loosen the

motor bracket nut just enough to move the bracket. Take hold of the motor bracket,

and pull against the belt just enough to take up the slack in it and to properly retension

it. If you are unable to adjust the tension, or if the belt is worn, replace the

belt. Some models have more than one belt: one is for the drive system that is

attached to the motor and the transmission pulleys; the other belt is for the water

pump. This belt is attached to the motor pulley and to the water pump pulley

(Figure 18-31). To adjust the water pump belt in this type of washer, just loosen the

pump mounting screws and adjust to obtain the correct tension, about 1/4-inch

deflection. There are even some models that use a direct-drive system (which has

no belts) to drive the motor, transmission, and pump (Figure 18-32). This type of

washer has the motor and the water pump attached to the transmission with

retaining clips.

544 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

Motor

pulley

Transmission pulley

Water

pump

pulley

Water

pump

belt

1/4"

FIGURE 18-31 View from underneath the washer base. Check belt delection.

FIGURE 18-32 The direct-drive washer has no belts.

Pump

Agitator

Basket

Water temperature switch

Water level switch

Timer

Control console

Water inlet

Water valve

Air dome

Transmission

Motor

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Between the motor shaft and the transmission, there is a coupling. To replace this

coupling, remove the retaining clips that secure the water pump and the motor.

Install the new coupling, and reattach the motor and the water pump.

6. Replace the drive belt. To replace the drive belt on this type of washer, you must

remove the flexible pump coupling (Figure 18-33). Next, loosen the motor bracket

nuts, and slide the motor forward to take the tension off the belt. Then remove the

belt from the motor pulley and the transmission pulley (Figure 18-34). Install the

new belt on the transmission pulley and the clutch pulley. Be sure that the belt is in

the pulley grooves. Next, adjust the belt tension, and tighten the motor bracket nuts.

Reinstall the flexible pump coupling and clamps, making sure that the coupling is

not twisted and that it is seated on the pump and clutch pulleys. The drive belt

tension on this type of washer should be approximately 1/2 inch when deflected.

7. Test the washer. You are now ready to test the washer. Begin the wash cycle with a

full load of laundry in the basket. Check the agitate and the spin cycles. If these check

out okay, reinstall the outer panels. If not, readjust the belt tension.

Water Level Control

The water level control starts in the empty position. As the washer fills with water and the

water level rises in the tub, it causes the air pressure in the tube and in the air dome to

increase (Figure 18-35). The air pressure is transferred from the air hose to the water level

control and against the diaphragm, which actuates the water level switch to the full position

and agitation begins.

Flexible

pump

coupling

Clutch pulley

Drive belt

Transmission pulley

FIGURE 18-33

Loosening the screw

on each clamp and

removing the lexible

coupling.

546 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

The typical complaints associated with the water level control (pressure switch) are:

Water is flowing over the top of the tub.

Tub does not fill to the proper level selected.

Washer will not agitate.

Washer will not spin.

FIGURE 18-34

Sliding the belt over

the motor pulley.

Clutch pulley

FIGURE 18-35

Water level control

and air dome

assembly.

Water level control

Hose

Tub

Trapped air in the air

hose and air dome

assembly

Water level

Air dome

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To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by trying to select different water levels

when operating the washer through its cycles. On electronic models, if a fault code

appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data

sheet behind the control panel for diagnostics information. On some models you

will need the actual service manual for the model you are working on to properly

diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in properly placing the

washer in the service test mode for testing the washer functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.) Is

there any physical damage to the component? Is the plastic hose connected to the

water level control and air dome? Check to be sure that the water is turned on all

the way.

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Remove the console panel to gain access. Begin by removing the console panel to

gain access to the water level control (see Figure 18-2).

5. Test the water level control. To test the water level control switch, remove and label

all of the wires from the switch (Figure 18-36). Remember, you will have to identify the

wires according to the wiring diagram in order to reinstall them on the water level

control switch properly. With the washer empty, use your ohmmeter (set on R × 1),

and test it for continuity on the switch contacts numbered 1 and 2 (Figure 18-37). If

you have continuity, this means that the water valve will be energized, allowing

the water to enter the tub. Now test for continuity between contacts 1 and 3; the

ohmmeter should read no continuity. Reconnect the wires to the water level switch.

Plug in the washer, and start the wash cycle. Let the console rest on top of the

washing machine for this test. Be careful not to touch any live wires or to short them

to the washer chassis while the test is being performed. As the water level rises in the

tub, it forces air through the air dome and up the plastic tube to the water level

control. The pressure that is exerted on the water level control’s diaphragm will trip

the water level switch from empty to full, which will start the agitation cycle. When

the agitation cycle begins, turn off the washer. Pull the power plug from the wall

socket to ensure that power has been removed.

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At this point, test for continuity again between the contacts numbered 1 and 2. The

ohmmeter should read no continuity. Next, test for continuity between contacts

numbered 1 and 3. The ohmmeter will read continuity. If the water level switch

checks out, then check the plastic hose that goes from the air dome to the water

level control. Ensure that there are no holes or cracks in the line. If the switch does

not check out okay, replace it. Remember: Never blow into the water level control

switch to activate it. Why? You might activate the switch, but it will not prove that

the switch will activate (at lesser pressures) at the proper water level setting

selected.

6. Remove the water level control. To remove the water level control, remove the

wires and then remove the screws that hold the component to the console panel

(Figure 18-38). Next, remove the plastic hose.

FIGURE 18-36

Removing the

wires from the

water level control

before checking

continuity.

Water level switch

FIGURE 18-37

Adjustable water

level control terminal

identiication for this

model only.

Common

terminal

Normally closed

terminal

Normally open

terminal

3 2

1

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7. Reinstall the water level control. To reinstall the water level control, just reverse

the disassembly procedure, and reassemble. Remember, you will have to identify

the wires according to the wiring diagram in order to properly reinstall them on the

water level control.

Lid Switch

On some models, the lid switch will pause the spin operation; on other models, it will pause

the wash operations, except water fill. Once the washer cycle is started, the washer lid

should remain closed until the end of the wash cycle. The lid switch is a safety device added

to protect consumers from getting entangled within the washer. Never bypass this switch.

The typical complaints associated with the lid switch are:

Washer will not spin.

Washer will not agitate.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by closing the washer lid and turning

the timer dial to start the spin cycle. On electronic models, if a fault code appears,

look up the code. If the washer will not power up, locate the technical data sheet

behind the control panel for diagnostics information. On some models you will

need the actual service manual for the model you are working on to properly

diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in properly placing the

washer in the service test mode for testing the washer functions.

FIGURE 18-38

Disconnecting the

wires and removing

the screws that hold

the control to the

console.

550 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with the

appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the correct

voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts during a

load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.) Is there any

physical damage to the component?

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the lid switch. If the washer’s top snaps in place, tape the lid shut. Use

a putty knife to release the spring clips in each corner, and lift off the top. If the spring

clips won’t release, open the lid, pull the top toward you, and lift (Figure 18-39). Raise

the washer top to gain access to the lid switch (Figure 18-40).

On some models, the top is held down with two screws that are secured from

underneath the top. The front of the cabinet is secured in place with two screws;

take them out and remove the front panel. Then remove the screws that hold the

top in place. On other models, the top is part of the cabinet (Figure 18-41). To gain

access to the switch, the cabinet will have to be removed as shown in Figure 18-18.

FIGURE 18-39 Tape the lid closed. Then pry the top open and lift the top off.

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FIGURE 18-40

Removing the plastic

shield to gain access

to the lid switch.

Lid switch

Lever

Plastic

shield

Pump

Transmission

Motor

Pump retaining clips

FIGURE 18-41 Remove the screws that hold the console and then remove the two clips that hold the

cabinet in place and remove the cabinet.

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5. Test the lid switch. To test the lid switch, remove the two wires from the switch

(Figure 18-42). With a continuity tester, test for continuity between the two terminals

of the switch while moving the lid switch lever. If the switch fails these tests, replace

the switch.

6. Replace the lid switch. Remove the screws that hold the switch in place (Figure 18-43).

Install the new switch, and connect the wires on the switch terminals. Then reconnect

the electricity and test the washer.

Water Pump

Two types of water pumps are used on automatic washers: mechanical (direct drive or belt

driven; Figure 18-41) and electric (electric motor coupled to a pump; Figure 18-44). The

water pump is used for draining the water from the washer.

FIGURE 18-42

Removing the wires to

check for continuity of

the switch.

Continuity

tester

FIGURE 18-43

Removing the two

screws that hold the

lid switch in place.

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The typical complaints associated with the water pump are:

Washer will not drain the water out.

It smells like something is burning.

The water in the washer will not recirculate.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. On electronic

models, if a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up,

locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for diagnostics information.

On some models you will need the actual service manual for the model you are

working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in

properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing the washer

functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity

to the washer. This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be

sure that you only remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse

panel or at the circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

Electric water

pump

FIGURE 18-44

Some models use an

electric water pump to

drain the water out of

the tub.

554 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Testing the electric drain pump motor. To test the electric drain pump motor

(Figure 18-44), remove the wire connector to the pump motor. Next, set your

multimeter on the ohms scale R × 1. Place the meter test leads on the motor

terminals. You should read between 10 and 13Ω on the meter. Now inspect

the impeller inside the pump. If there is any debris, remove it. Make sure that

the impeller is not damaged.

5. Access and remove the direct drive water pump. In order to gain access to the

water pump in this type of washer, the cabinet must be removed (see Figure 18-18).

Remove the screws that hold the control panel in place. Next, lift the control panel

up. Then remove the clips from each side that hold the cabinet in place. Pull back

on the cabinet, and move it out of the way (Figure 18-41). With no water in the tub,

remove the hoses from the pump ports (Figure 18-45) (some water will spill out of

FIGURE 18-45

Loosen the hose

clamp on both

hoses and remove

the hose from the

pump.

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the pump). Wipe the water up immediately. Check the water pump ports for any

obstructions. If no obstructions are found, then disconnect the two clamps that hold

the pump in place (Figure 18-46). Remove the pump (Figure 18-47).

To gain access to the water pump in this older type of washer, remove the back panel.

With no water in the tub, remove the hoses from the pump ports (some water will

spill out of the pump). Wipe the water up immediately. If obstructions are found,

remove the obstructions, reconnect the hoses, and test for proper operation. If the unit

is still not operating properly, or if the obstruction could not be removed, the pump

must be removed. Next, remove the flexible pump coupling (Figure 18-48). Now

remove the bolts that hold the pump in place (Figure 18-49). Remove the pump.

6. Install a new water pump. To install the new pump, just reverse the disassembly

procedure, and reassemble. Test the washer for any water leaks. The direct-drive

washer can be operated with the cabinet removed by installing a jumper wire in the

lid switch harness connector (Figure 18-50).

FIGURE 18-46

Remove the clamps

that secure the water

pump to the motor.

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FIGURE 18-47

Remove the water

pump from the

motor. Check for

obstructions. Inspect

the water pump.

FIGURE 18-48

Loosen the screw

on each clamp and

remove the lexible

coupling.

Pump

Clamp

Flexible pump

coupling

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Inner Basket

The typical complaints associated with the inner basket are:

Basket will not spin.

Water will not drain out of the tub.

Washer damages the clothing.

Rust marks on clothing.

Pump

Hose

FIGURE 18-49

Removing the pump

hold-down bolts.

FIGURE 18-50

Installing a jumper

wire in the lid switch

harness connector to

test the operation of

a direct-drive washer.

Lid switch

harness

connector

Gray

Violet

Jumper

wire

558 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by inspecting and operating the washer.

Inspect the inner basket.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to inner basket. To gain access to the inner basket, you must first lift

the top of the washer off (see Figure 18-39) and disconnect the fill hose from the

water inlet, located on top of the splash guard (Figure 18-51). Remove the splash

guard by removing the clips that hold it to the outer tub. Now that you have

more room to work with, remove the agitator. On some models, the agitator is

held down with a cap and stud assembly, or the agitator might just snap onto the

transmission shaft (Figure 18-52). Next, use a spanner wrench to remove the

locknut that holds the basket in place (Figure 18-53). On some models, the inner

basket is held in place with four bolts. If so, remove the bolts. On some models,

the agitator is part of the inner basket (Figure 18-54). Next, lift the inner basket

out of the tub. Inspect the outer tub for debris and rust. Be sure that the tub drain

opening is clear of debris.

FIGURE 18-51

Removing the clamp

from the inlet hose.

Splash guard

Inlet hose

Clip

Clamp

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5. Reinstall the inner basket. To reinstall the inner basket, just reverse the disassembly

procedure, and reassemble. One important note: Do not overtighten the locknut.

Just tighten the locknut enough to secure the basket in place. If you overtighten the

locknut, the washer will not work properly.

6. Test the washer. After you have reassembled the inner basket, splash guard, and

agitator, test the washer. Check for leaks around the top rim of the outer tub. Check

for agitation and spin with a full load of clothes.

FIGURE 18-52

Removing the agitator.

Agitator

Stud

FIGURE 18-53

Always use a spanner

wrench to remove the

locknut.

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Hoses

The typical complaints associated with the hoses are:

Washer leaks water.

Water will not pump out.

Kinked or plugged hoses.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by inspecting and operating the washer.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

Inspect fill and drain hoses.

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Remove the defective hose. To remove the defective hose, the tub must be empty

of water. Loosen the clamps that hold the hose in place. On some models, the

manufacturer uses a snap ring clamp. To remove this type of clamp, just squeeze

the ends together (Figure 18-55).

FIGURE 18-54

Some models have

eliminated the tall

type agitator. This

type of basket has

more room in it for

a larger wash load.

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C h a p t e r 1 8 : To p L o a d A u t o m a t i c W a s h e r s 561

Clutch

Clutches are used for braking (slowing and stopping the inner basket) and/or allowing the

turning of the inner basket to get up to speed.

The typical complaints associated with the clutch are:

Washer will not agitate.

Washer will not spin.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. On electronic

models, if a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up,

locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for diagnostics information.

On some models you will need the actual service manual for the model you are

working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in

properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing the washer

functions.

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

FIGURE 18-55

Removing the snap

ring clamp. If you are

just replacing a part,

always check the hose

for any cracks where

the clamp was resting

on the hose.

Pump

Snap clamp

ring

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WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Gain access to the motor. To gain access to the motor, the back panel must be

removed. The back panel is held on with screws. Remove the screws, and remove

the panel.

5. Remove the motor and clutch. In this type of washer, to remove the motor and

clutch assembly, you must first disconnect the wires of the motor from the wiring

harness. Then remove the flexible pump coupling (see Figure 18-48). Remove the

belt from the clutch. Once the motor is isolated, remove the three bolts that hold

the motor mounting plate to the suspension. Now remove the motor assembly from

the washer. You are now ready to remove the clutch assembly. Remove the clutch

drive plate by removing the roll pin. This is accomplished by using a drive pin tool

on the roll pin (Figure 18-56) and hitting it with a hammer. On a stubborn clutch

drive plate, the use of a wheel puller tool and a horseshoe collar tool will make it

easier to remove (Figure 18-57). Disassemble and remove the clutch assembly, and

replace with a new assembly.

6. Install the new clutch assembly. To install the new clutch assembly, just reverse the

disassembly procedure, and reassemble. Adjust the belt tension.

7. Test the washer. Test the washer operation by running the washer through a cycle.

Be sure that you have some clothes in the washer when testing it.

FIGURE 18-56

When hitting the drive

pin tool, be careful not

to damage the clutch

drive plate.

Drive pin tool

Clutch drive plate

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Transmission

Transmissions are used for agitation and/or spinning of the inner basket. Some older

models have large gear case transmissions while others have solenoid-activated clutch type

transmissions. Check with the service manual for the model you are working on for the

correct procedures on removing the transmission.

The typical complaints associated with the transmission are:

Washer will not agitate.

Washer will not spin.

To handle these problems, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. On electronic

models, if a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up,

locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for diagnostics information.

On some models you will need the actual service manual for the model you are

working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in

properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing the washer functions.

Horseshoe

collar tool

Wheel puller tool

Clutch drum

FIGURE 18-57 Use a horseshoe collar tool to remove a stubborn clutch drum.

564 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Remove the inner basket. To remove the inner basket, see the “Inner Basket” section

earlier in this chapter.

5. Remove the transmission boot. To remove the transmission boot, loosen the ring

clamps and lift the boot off the transmission and the outer tub (Figure 18-58). Examine

the boot: if it is damaged, replace it. If the ring clamps are rusted, replace them.

FIGURE 18-58

Loosen the clamps,

and lift the boot off.

Inspect the boot for

holes.

Ring

clamp

Boot

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6. Remove the transmission. Remove the six bolts that hold the transmission to the

washer’s suspension. Remember the position that the transmission is in before

you remove it. This will help you later for the reinstallation of the new transmission.

Next, reach in and remove the drive belt from the transmission pulley. Lift the

transmission out of the washer (Figure 18-59).

7. Install the transmission. To reinstall the transmission, just reverse the disassembly

procedure, and reassemble. Do not forget to reinstall the belt.

8. Test the washer. Test the washer operation by running the washer through a cycle.

Be sure that you have some clothes in the washer when testing it.

Direct-Drive Washer Transmission and Brake/Drive Assembly

When handling problems related to the direct-drive washer transmission or brake/drive

assembly, perform the following steps:

1. Verify the complaint. Verify the complaint by operating the washer. On electronic

models, if a fault code appears, look up the code. If the washer will not power up,

locate the technical data sheet behind the control panel for diagnostics information.

On some models you will need the actual service manual for the model you are

working on to properly diagnose the washer. The service manual will assist you in

properly placing the washer in the service test mode for testing the washer functions.

FIGURE 18-59

Removing bolts

and lifting the

transmission out

of the tub.

Drive

belt

Transmission

Suspension

566 P a r t V I : A p p l i a n c e S e r v i c e , I n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d P r e v e n t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e d u r e s

2. Check for external factors. You must check for external factors not associated with

the appliance. Is the appliance installed properly? Does the appliance have the

correct voltage? The voltage at the receptacle is between 108 volts and 132 volts

during a load on the circuit. Do you have the correct polarity? (See Chapter 6.)

3. Disconnect the electricity. Before working on the washer, disconnect the electricity.

This can be done by pulling the plug from the electrical outlet. Be sure that you only

remove the washer plug. Or disconnect the electricity at the fuse panel or at the

circuit breaker panel. Turn off the electricity.

WARNING Some diagnostic tests will require you to test the components with the power turned on.

When you disassemble the control panel, you can position it in such a way that the wiring will

not make contact with metal. This act will allow you to test the components without electrical

mishaps.

4. Remove the outer cabinet. To remove the cabinet (see Figure 18-18); remove the

screws that hold the control panel in place. Next, lift the control panel up. Then

remove the clips from each side that hold the cabinet in place. Pull back on the

cabinet, and move it out of the way (see Figure 18-41).

5. Remove the agitator. To remove the two-piece agitator (Figure 18-60), pull off the

agitator cap and the inner cap. Remove the bolt that secures the agitator, pull up

on the agitator, and remove it from the inner basket.

6. Remove the tub ring, inner basket, and transmission. Before you can remove the

inner basket, you must first remove the tub ring. To do this, you must unsnap the

tabs around the outer tub (see Figure 18-60). Out of the eight tabs, one of them is a

locator tab (the smallest one). The locator tab will help align the tub ring properly

on reassembly. Next, remove the spanner nut, expand the drive block, and lift the

basket out of the tub. Then remove the motor and pump (Figures 18-19, 18-20,

and 18-21) and lay the washer on its back. Locate and remove the three bolts that

secure the transmission to the tub support. Pull the transmission out of the basket

drive tube, being careful not to damage the bearing.

7. Remove the brake/drive assembly. To release the brake, turn the brake cam driver

counterclockwise. This will allow you to pull the brake and drive tube out of the

base assembly (Figure 18-61). Next, inspect for wear on the drive tube shaft as

indicated in Figure 18-62; if it is greater than .005 of an inch, replace the brake/drive

assembly.

8. Install the transmission and the brake/drive assembly. To reinstall the transmission

and the brake/drive assembly, just reverse the disassembly procedure, and reassemble.

9. Test the washer. Test the washer operation by running the washer through a cycle.

Be sure that you have some clothes in the washer when testing it.

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FIGURE 18-60

The agitator, tub ring,

and inner basket.

Two-piece

agitator

Clutch

Agitator cap

Inner cap

Clutch dogs

Tub ring

Locator tab

Spanner nut

Inner basket

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FIGURE 18-61

Removing the

brake/drive

assembly.

Brake and drive tube assembly

FIGURE 18-62

Excessive wear on the

shaft can be identiied

as shown here.

Drive assembly shaft

Upper centerpost

Seal wear area

Upper bearing

wear area

Center area

between bearing

contact surfaces

Lower bearing

wear area

Lower centerpost

seal wear area

PART VI